2015-01-31T16:05:21Z http://oai.sciepub.com/oai/oai2.aspx
oai:sciepub.com:10 2013-02-15
Technology Preference in Choices of Delivery Care Utilization from User Perspective –A Community Study in Vietnam Technology preference, delivery care utilization, hospital delivery, caesarean section, rural and urban, Vietnam Choices for delivery care are made based on the available resources and influence health outcomes of women and their children. The aim of the paper is to study utilization and preference for delivery care and related factors in one urban and one rural area of northern Vietnam. Two cohorts of pregnant women were carried out in DodaLab and FilaBavi Health and Demographic Surveillance Sites (HDSS) in Hanoi, Vietnam from April 2008 to December 2009. Together, 2515 pregnant women were identified and followed until delivery through quarterly household interviews using structured questionnaires. Almost all women delivered at health care facilities. Most of the rural women gave birth at primary health care facilities (88.5%) while urban women primarily used secondary and tertiary hospitals (93.6%). Caesarean section (CS) was used for 38.5% of births in the urban area and 12.4% in the rural. Giving birth in hospitals and CS were more common among highly educated women, employed women, women living in households or communities with good economic conditions, and women expected to give birth to a son. Technology preference in delivery care was associated with better socioeconomic conditions and expecting a boy. Improving the quality and reputation of primary health care facilities, informing women about CS risks and monitoring indications of CS are important policy issues. Science and Education Publishing 2013-02-15 http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajphr/1/1/2 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:100 2013-02-28
The Chaotic Monopoly Profit Growth Model and a Pigouvian Tax monopoly, price, chaos Deterministic chaos refers to irregular or chaotic motion that is generated by nonlinear systems. The chaotic behavior is not to quantum-mechanical-like uncertainty. Chaos theory is used to prove that erratic and chaotic fluctuations can indeed arise in completely deterministic models. Chaotic systems exhibit a sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Seemingly insignificant changes in the initial conditions produce large differences in outcomes. The basic aim of this paper is to construct a relatively simple chaotic growth model of the monopoly price that is capable of generating stable equilibria, cycles, or chaos. A key hypothesis of this work is based on the idea that the coefficient μ =f (n – b – d ) plays a crucial role in explaining local stability of the monopoly profit, where, b – the coefficient of the total cost function of the monopoly firm, n - the coefficient of the inverse demand function, d - the Pigovian tax rate. Science and Education Publishing 2013-02-28 http://pubs.sciepub.com/jbms/1/1/1 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:101 2013-03-08
Role of Indian Mutual Funds in Financial Inclusion: Public Vs Private Sector mutual funds, financial inclusiveness, AMC and investor composition The mutual fund organizations are taking active part in financial inclusiveness and they are promoting investment habit among the investors. At present there are 37 Asset Management Companies (AMCs) comprise the mutual fund industry and manage assets over Rs 8075 billion. This industry has undergone spectacular growth in recent years, making this study one of extreme interest. In this context, this paper is intended to examine the role of mutual fund organization in financial inclusiveness with reference to performance through public and private sector. Science and Education Publishing 2013-03-08 http://pubs.sciepub.com/jbms/1/1/2 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:102 2013-03-16
New Era Sport Sponsorship in Turkey sport sponsorship, sport, Turkey, sports law The aim of this paper was to define and focus on Sport Sponsorship in Turkey according to financial issues. Sport sponsorship was very weak in Turkish sport area before 2004. By the time, The Turkish Government has decided to legislate a special law for supporting “SPORT” and they have regulated some of the financial laws based on 1986 General Directorate of Youth and Sport (GDYS) Law.The new law has started a very efficient age for Turkish sport. On the other hand the new “Autonomous Sport Federation” law had been published in the same time. However that was not real autonomy for the federations. The rules which called “Frame Status for Autonomous Sport Federations” gave some limitations and restrictions to the federations like regulations, financial situations or administrative models. Only football federation has a different situation and has got own special law which was published in 1986. Although football federation and the football clubs could have benefits from the new sport sponsorship law, the rule says that professional sport clubs can show only the %50 of the sponsorship amount as a tax relief. According to the Turkish laws football is the only professional sport branch in Turkey. Science and Education Publishing 2013-03-16 http://pubs.sciepub.com/jbms/1/1/3 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:103 2013-02-28
Exchange Rate Exposure of Real Sector Firms in an Emerging Economy exchange rate exposure, firm value, currency derivatives, industry structure Firms in emerging economies face a potentially higher degree of transaction and economic exposure compared to those in advanced economies. This is due to fact that most of hedging instruments available in advanced financial markets are not available for firms of emerging markets. Another peculiarity of the exposure of firms in emerging economies derive from the fact that these firms are usually price-takers in international trade and have little power to pass through the changes in exchange rates to foreign buyers. This study is one of the few attempts to directly estimate the exposure of real sector firms from an emerging economy. The paper focus on the determinants of exposure as revealed by the estimates from the two-factor CAPM model. Five main determinants of exposure that are thought to be the most relevant in the particular case of Turkey. These are the level of foreign sales, industry competition, net foreign non-financial liabilities, net foreign currency debt and finally domestic risk free assets. The estimates based on a sample of Turkish manufacturing firms reveal a positive but lagged exposure to real exchange rate changes. A result from the estimations of the two-factor model is the insignificant coefficients on the current exchange rate under all categories. This is a strong evidence against the Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH) and an evidence for mispricing or a form of market inefficiency. The foreign sales ratio is found to be the most important positive determinant of exposure. However, foreign debt and other foreign non-financial liabilities make negative contribution to exposure. This indicates that measurable exposures are not easily hedged because of the missing derivative markets. Finally, competition is found to make a marginal contribution to the exposure. Science and Education Publishing 2013-02-28 http://pubs.sciepub.com/jfa/1/1/1 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:1031 2013-10-21
Possibility of Carrying Capacity Increasing of Anchor Bolts in Heavy Equipments of Metallurgical Plants anchor bolts, dynamic loading, numerical and experimental methods of mechanics Abstract Anchor bolts in heavy machines of metallurgical plants are often, from the point of view of their carrying capacity, limiting factor in increasing productivity. This paper presents some possibilities of increasing strength of anchor bolts using numerical and experimental methods of mechanics. Proposed and verified procedures allow determining the actual stress states during tightening the anchor bolts and nuts and reduce dynamic loads in bolts as well as in operating machines. Science and Education Publishing 2013-10-21 http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajme/1/7/50 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:104 2013-03-14
An Empirical Investigation of the Relationship between Corporate Ownership Structures and their Performances (Evidence from Tehran Stock Exchange) ownership structure, corporate governance, Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE), panel data, performance evaluation This study investigates the effects of ownership structure on the performance of the listed companies in the Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE). Consequently, a main hypothesis is presented, which states that there is a significant relationship between companies’ ownership structures and their performances and then five sub-hypotheses are provided. For testing the hypotheses, the statistical "panel data" technique is employed. For testing each hypotheses, 4 accounting and economics performance evaluation variables models based on different ownership structures are established. The statistical population includes 66 companies in the period between 2003-2008. Based on the research results, all hypotheses except the fourth one, were confirmed. The findings revealed a significant negative relationship between the "institutional ownership" and companies’ performances; and the relationship between "corporate ownership" and companies’ performance generally was significantly positive. "Management ownership", however, would affect the performance significantly and negatively. For "foreign ownership", there was no information that would indicate ownership of the foreign investors in our samples companies. With respect to the "company ownership", just in the models based on the accounting variables (i.e., ROA and ROE) coefficients are significant and negative. But in the models based on the "market variables" (i.e., Q-Tobin and MBVR) coefficients are not significant. In general, there was a significant relationship between companies’ ownership structures and their performances. Science and Education Publishing 2013-03-14 http://pubs.sciepub.com/jfa/1/1/2 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:105 2013-03-15
Evaluating Know-how for Transfer Price Benchmarking know-how; IAS 38; tax accounting; arm’s length; information asymmetries; intangibles valuation Companies’ added value, even due to the expansion of the knowledge economy, is increasingly immaterial, and so is their taxable base: hence the importance of know-how, in spite of its ambiguous nature, to be tackled with an interdisciplinary accounting, financial and fiscal approach. Due to their immaterial nature, intangibles such as know-how are frequently negotiated within multinational groups, so becoming sensible to transfer pricing issues, which also depend on complex international accounting standards, with manifold corporate governance implications. OECD guidelines address the intricate problem trying to adapt standard transfer pricing methods to specific circumstances, but uncontrolled comparisons remain an uphill task, even if international accounting principles and market best practices may provide some useful hints for appraisal. To the extent that intangibles are unique, they cannot paradoxically be universal, so challenging arm’s length comparisons. Fair value market valuations, based also on critical accounting, consequently represent an uneasy and slippery benchmark. The optimal target is to disarticulate, on both economic and accounting terms, the value chain that rotates around know-how, attributing its belonging pieces to single taxpayers, so identifying a fair taxable base within each country, remembering that know-how is the engine behind growth ... and taxes. Science and Education Publishing 2013-03-15 http://pubs.sciepub.com/jfa/1/1/3 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:106 2013-03-02
Existence and Uniqueness Theorem for Fuzzy Integral Equation fuzzy integral equation, existence, uniqueness, fuzzy differential equation In this article we consider fuzzy integral equations and prove the existence and uniqueness theorem. Science and Education Publishing 2013-03-02 http://pubs.sciepub.com/jmsa/1/1/1 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:107 2013-03-23
A Min-Max Algorithm for Solving the Linear Complementarity Problem linear complementarity problem, min-max algorithm, fixed point, Brouwer theorem, interval vector, closed bounded convex set The Linear Complementarity Problem LCP(M,q) is to find a vector x in IRn satisfying x0, Mx+q0 and xT(Mx+q)=0, where M as a matrix and q as a vector, are given data. In this paper we show that the linear complementarity problem is completely equivalent to finding the fixed point of the map x = max (0, (I-M)x-q); to find an approximation solution to the second problem, we propose an algorithm starting from any interval vector X(0) and generating a sequence of the interval vector (X(k))k=1 which converges to the exact solution of our linear complementarity problem. We close our paper with some examples which illustrate our theoretical results. Science and Education Publishing 2013-03-23 http://pubs.sciepub.com/jmsa/1/1/2 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:108 2013-02-28
Metamaterial Cloaks for EM Wireless Multi-Channel Telecommunications cloaking, metamaterial, electromagnetic field manipulation, electromagnetic shield In this paper, a spatial and frequency selective electromagnetic shield, employing an anisotropic metamaterial device, is analyzed and developed. The results are based on a numerical analysis using the Finite Element Method (FEM). The device is based on the cloaking concept. This is constructed employing a coordinate transformation considering Maxwell’s Equations independence from coordinate system. The frequency selection is obtained due to the frequency dispersion characteristic of metamaterials, and varies over time by tuning its resonance frequency which is a consequence of entropy condition on resonant media. A full device system is simulated in order to analyze the advantage of using such systems in EM wireless communications. Science and Education Publishing 2013-02-28 http://pubs.sciepub.com/materials/1/1/1 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:109 2013-02-28
Hydrometallurgical Recovery of Value Metals from Spent Lithium Ion Batteries Li-ion battery (LIB), leaching, spent batteries, recovery Effects of reaction variables on leaching in hydrochloric acid of LiCoO2 contained in cathodic electrode of spent lithium ion batteries were investigated. The dissolution of LiCoO2 was found to increase with an increase in temperature, concentration of HCl, time and solid/liquid (S/L) ratio. Li and Co from LiCoO2 were leached around 89% with addition of 3.5 Vol% of H2O2 as a reducing agent. The metal values contained in the leach liquor were recovered by chemical precipitation. Cobalt was separated as cobalt hydroxide and lithium was separated as lithium carbonate. The effects of pH on the extent of recovery of metal values were investigated. The products obtained were characterised by x-ray diffraction analysis. Science and Education Publishing 2013-02-28 http://pubs.sciepub.com/materials/1/1/2 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:11 2013-02-15
Clinical and Histological Features in Wegener Granulomatosis Vasculitis, ANCA, Renal failure Wegener Granulomatosis is a systemic ANCA-associated Vasculitis, affecting small-to-medium vessels. Clinical presentation with simultaneous involvement of kidney and upper and lower respiratory tract is unusual. There are few histological reports regarding lung biopsy in WG because clinical and radiologic features are diagnostic. Sometimes radiologic findings can be unusual. We detected an instructive case of WG, analyzing clinical course, laboratory and radiological features, kidney, lung and larynx histological pictures. Besides renal biopsy, nephrology team performed larynx and lung biopsies because of unusual clinical presentation, computed tomography chest examination and relevant malignancy risk regarding following immunosuppressant therapy. WG is a point of interest for clinical multidisciplinary activity. Diagnosis of WG is a combination of clinical, laboratory and pathologic features. Collaboration between different specialities help to improve current diagnostic activity. Science and Education Publishing 2013-02-15 http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajmsm/1/1/1 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:110 2013-02-28
Optimization and Modelling of Process Parameters Involved in Ultrasonic Machining of Glass Using Design of Experiments and Regression Approach design of experiments, analysis, regression, modelling, statistics, validation Glass is an ideal material for parts with micro-holes and has been widely used in automotive, aerospace and woodworking industries due to its superior wear and corrosion resistance. In this research paper, the statistical analysis of the ultrasonic machining of glass using design of experiments and regression approach has been done. The performance characteristics such as material removal rate of machined samples using ultrasonic machining process have been presented. The experimental conditions were designed by using the design of experiments approach. The analysis of results has been done using the MINITAB 14.0 software and results obtained are validated by conducting the confirmation experiments. The F-test and P-value has been applied to determine the significant parameters. Science and Education Publishing 2013-02-28 http://pubs.sciepub.com/materials/1/1/3 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:111 2013-03-25
Assessment of Air Flow over an Equilateral Triangular Obstacle in a Horizontal Channel Using FVM equilateral triangular cylinder, viscous fluid, horizontal channel, finite volume method, streamlines Viscous and incompressible flow is simulated over an equilateral triangular obstacle placed in a horizontal channel. Different from the previous studies, the governing Navier-Stokes equations along with appropriate boundary conditions are solved by a particular finite volume generated code. A fixed blockage ratio (β=0.05) is considered. Different ranges of Reynolds numbers in laminar regime under critical value of the Reynolds number (Re ≤ 38.03) are investigated. Range of this study is from 1.4 to 38.03. The flow characteristics are analyzed in the forms of streamlines and pressure fields at various Reynolds numbers. Diagram of drag coefficient versus Reynolds numbers is presented and discussed. Results are compared with the available data in the literature that display good agreements. Science and Education Publishing 2013-03-25 http://pubs.sciepub.com/jmsa/1/1/3 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:112 2013-02-25
Rule of Thumb Bounds in Goldbach’s Conjecture Goldbach’s conjecture, probabilistic number theory, lower bound This paper determines proper factors for old and novel logarithmic functions previously used in asymptotic formulas, to make them conservative lower bounds for the “thumb-of-rule” estimation of the number of representations of an even number 2n as a sum of two odd primes (Goldbach’s conjecture). Numerical experiments up to 2n = 500,000 show that, in the graph of the number of prime-pairs versus 2n, the ratio of the ordinate of lowest “cloud” points over the aforementioned functions tends asymptotically to values between 0.61 and 0.74. One of the three formulas proposed takes the simple form 4n/[3(lnn)2], which is a conservative lower bound for the number of representations of an even number 2n as a sum of two odd primes. Science and Education Publishing 2013-02-25 http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajma/1/1/2 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:113 2013-02-26
The Fractional Sub-Equation Method and Exact Analytical Solutions for Some Nonlinear Fractional PDEs fractional sub-equation method, fractional differential equation, modified Riemann–Liouville derivative, Mittag-Leffler function, analytical solutions In the present paper, a fractional sub-equation method is proposed to solve fractional differential equations. Being concise and straightforward, this method is applied the space–time fractional Potential Kadomtsev–Petviashvili (PKP) equation and the space–time fractional Symmetric Regularized Long Wave (SRLW) equation. As a result, many exact analytical solutions are obtained including hyperbolic function solutions, trigonometric function solutions, and rational solutions. This method is more powerful and will be used in further works to establish more entirely new solutions for other kinds of nonlinear fractional PDEs arising in mathematical physics. Science and Education Publishing 2013-02-26 http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajma/1/1/3 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:114 2013-03-04
Comparison of Geodesics and Energy Variation Principles of Light Propagation variational methods, Lagrangian, light-like particle, Fermat principle, geodesics The propagation of light on a set of null paths in a pseudo-Riemannian manifold is studied using a variational principle of extremal energy. This method is compared with those based on the geodesics and Fermat principles. For the static space-time all three variational methods give the same solutions. The Fermat principle for stationary gravitational fields is identical to the principle of variation of energy of light-like particles. The approach proposed here is applied to a flat expanding space, corresponding to the LCDM-model, and generalized Gödel space-time. In the first case a solution obtained by the method of energy variation coincides with the geodesic method, while in the second case they give different solutions. Science and Education Publishing 2013-03-04 http://pubs.sciepub.com/ijp/1/1/1 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:115 2013-03-10
Measurement of Characteristics of Sound Reflection and Scattering by Elastic Cylindrical Shells in Conditions of Hydroacoustic Basin diffraction, Fresnel zone, Fraunhofer zone, Cylindrical shell, boundary conditions A method and experimental setup intended for measurement the amplitude and phase of acoustic field in the near zone a scatterer are described. The results of measurement the scattering characteristics of low-frequency sound signals scattered by elastic cylindrical shells are analyzed. Science and Education Publishing 2013-03-10 http://pubs.sciepub.com/ijp/1/1/2 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:116 2013-03-10
Study of Nd Nd Trivalent neodymium (Nd3+) is the most successful type of active ion for solid-state lasers and thus far has been made to lase in more types of crystal and glass hosts than any other ion. It can operate as either a pulsed or continuous-wave laser with a sharp emission line. The most common emission wavelength is near 1m, but there are several possible laser transitions in the near-infrared spectral region, and in addition a near-ultraviolet laser line. Although the effects of different host environments on the spectroscopic properties of Nd3+ are more subtle than those for transition-metal ions, they can cause significant differences in lasing characteristics through changes in physical processes such as radiative transition strength, radiationless decay probabilities, excited-state absorption, and cross relaxation quenching. The Nd ion when doped into a solid-state host crystal produces the strongest emission at a wavelength just beyond 1m. The two host materials most commonly used for this laser ion are yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG) and glass. At room temperature the 1.064m radiative transition is homogeneous broadened with a narrow emission line width of 0.45nm and the upper level lifetime is 230s. Nd can be doped to very high concentration in glass. The outstanding practical advantage compared to crystalline materials is the tremendous size capability for high-energy applications. The fluorescent lifetime is approximately 300s, and, the emission line width is 18-28nm. Science and Education Publishing 2013-03-10 http://pubs.sciepub.com/ijp/1/1/3 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:117 2013-03-06
Determining the Effectiveness of Personalized Versus Prescribed Self-Talk on Athletic Performance for Elite and Novice Athletes sport psychology, self-talk, mental skills, Taekwon-Do An athlete’s performance can be influenced in positive and negative ways by what and how they think (i.e. their self-talk). While there is evidence indicating that self-talk can influence performance it is not clear if the level an athlete has achieved in their sport influences the effect that self-talk has on their performance and/or what type of self-talk is of greatest benefit to them. The present study investigated if personalising self-talk makes it more effective than prescribed words in relation to enhancing an athlete’s performance and if this effect differs between novice and elite Taekwon-Do athletes. It was found that for elite athletes ‘personalised’ self-talk enhanced performance whereas ‘prescribed’ self-talk was detrimental to performance; however for novice athletes the relationship was less clear. The factors that influenced the relationship between self-talk type and the performance of elite and novice athlete are discussed. Science and Education Publishing 2013-03-06 http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajap/1/1/1 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:118 2013-03-25
Influence of Personality and Self-Esteem on Teachers’ Proness to Burnout Syndrome in Lagos Metropolis personality, self-esteem, burnout syndrome, teachers This study aimed at assessing the influence of personality and self-esteem on teachers’ susceptibility to burnout syndrome in Lagos metropolis, Nigeria. A descriptive survey design was adopted for the study and a simple random sampling technique was used to select 200 participants (M=94; F=106) from ten public and ten private secondary schools in Lagos metropolis. Data collected using three psychological instruments namely: Index of self- esteem (ISE), Big Five Inventory (BFI) and Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) were analyzed by independent t-test and simple regression analysis. It was revealed that there were significant differences between the levels of self-esteem and personality differences in the teachers’ proness to burnout syndrome. Furthermore, personality traits jointly accounted for 2.7% variance in teachers’ burnout syndrome. The implication of the findings of this study depicts that there are certain traits that make up efficient and effective teachers as well as burnout teachers. In addition, highly motivated teachers tend to love their profession and students and are less likely susceptible to burnout syndrome. Science and Education Publishing 2013-03-25 http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajap/1/1/2 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:119 2013-03-01
Can Two-Dimensional Technology Measure Changes in the Swing of Elite Croquet Players Following a Self-Talk Intervention? sport psychology, self-talk, mental skills, croquet To assess the influence of self-talk on an athlete’s performance techniques are required to measure changes in skill execution but there are limitations to these techniques. Analysis of movement is often done in laboratory settings using three-dimensional motion-capture technology. The limitations of this approach make it impractical for most people to use and therefore we investigated if a high-speed video camera and two-dimensional software could measure changes in the swing of elite croquet players across different self-talk conditions. Significant differences were found for the timing of the backswing and downswing with mallet angle at follow-through approaching significance. These results are promising in relation to detecting changes in performance with two-dimensional techniques but there are limitations that must be considered regarding conclusions drawn from such findings. Science and Education Publishing 2013-03-01 http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajap/1/1/3 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:12 2013-02-15
Formulation and Optimization of Natural Polysaccharide Hydrogel Microbeads of Aceclofenac Sodium for Oral Controlled Drug Delivery Sodium alginate, aceclofenac sodium, Natural polysaccharides, Oral controlled drug delivery, Zero-order kinetics The objective of this study was to prepare and evaluate calcium alginate (CA) microbeads with calcium chloride as cross-linking agent for aceclofenac sodium by ionotropic external gelation method. Calcium alginate microbeads represent a useful tool for oral sustained/ controlled drug delivery but show several problems, mainly related to the stability, and rapid drug release at higher pH that, in most cases, is too fast due to increase porosity. To overcome such inconveniences, which was to develop CA microbeads coated with Guar gum (GG) and Locust bean gum (LBG) as drug release modifiers to improve stability and prolong the drug release. While increasing in the concentration of sodium alginate and other polymer dispersion increased size distribution, flow properties, mean particle size, swelling ratio and drug entrapment efficiency. The mean particle sizes of drug-loaded microbeads were found to be in the range 596.45±1.04 to 880.10±0.13. The drug entrapment efficiency was obtained in the range of 63.24±0.66 to 99.75±0.87. The shape and surface characteristics were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). No significant drug-polymer interactions, physical changes and crystallinity of the drug in the formulations were determined by FT-IR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction [XRD]. In-vitro drug release profiles of microbeads were pH dependent and were analyzed by different kinetic models. The mechanism of drug release from microbeads depends on swelling and erosion process resulting CA microbeads was diffusion controlled followed by First order kinetics and whereas CA microbeads coated with GG and LBG approaching to near Zero- order kinetics. Science and Education Publishing 2013-02-15 http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajmsm/1/1/2 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:120 2013-03-15
Low Unconguted Estriol Levels in the Maternal Quadruple-Marker Screen in a Fetus with Cornelia de Lange Syndrome and a Partial Deletion of the Cornelia de Lange Syndrome, prenatal, quadruple screen, trisomy 18, microarray, Smith Lemli Opitz syndrome, placenta Prenatal diagnosis of Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CDLs) is difficult due to non-specific ultrasound and biochemical findings, normal karyotype, and negative family history. Previous studies suggest that low first and second trimester levels of pregnancy associated plasma protein-A are an indicator for this genetically heterogeneous condition, low levels of this protein can be non-specific. Here, we suggest the addition of estriol to the prenatal evaluation of CdLs. This steroid hormone, produced by the placenta from fetal 16-hydroxydehydroepiandrosterone, can serve as an indicator for fetal distress, placental dysfunction, and intrauterine growth retardation which is a feature of CdLs. Science and Education Publishing 2013-03-15 http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajbr/1/2/1 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:121 2013-03-22
Subcomponents of Vitamine B Complex Regulate the Growth and Development of Human Brain Derived Cells subcomponents of Vitamin B, human brain, neuronal cell culture, xanthine oxidase The work is focused on the role of single components of Vitamin B complex: pyridoxine, riboflavin, thiamine, and nicotinamide in the processes of growth and development of the human brain derived cells. We, also, have assayed the activity of Xanthine Oxidase in the presence of above mentioned subcomponents to delineate the possible mechanism of their action. Results indicate that the all components of Vitamin B complex might be responsible for cells’ growth, maturation, proliferation. During early period of the cells’ growth the most important components were thiamine and Pyridoxine, initiating cells’ proliferation (number of the cells in one field: 2556, 17±355, 68, 2179,0±223,55, resp) vs control (1562,94±146,45), whereas during the late stages of maturation the most important components responsible for differentiation, were riboflavin and nicotinamide (3774.77± 188.41, 3558.82±152.90 resp. vs control 2905±263.75; p<0.035). In comparison with the all other subcomponents of Vitamin B complex only in pyridoxine containing samples, XO activity was specifically inhibited by allopurinol (percentile of inhibition 160,00±60,00 vs control 31,03±6,92, p<0,05). We have concluded that Pyridoxine might interact with XO and regulate its activity. All components of Vitamin B complex are able to initiate cells development and growth; however, they are supposed to be selectively utilized in time dependent manner to guarantee the highest efficiency of the cells development, maturation and proliferation Science and Education Publishing 2013-03-22 http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajbr/1/2/2 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:122 2013-04-03
Genomic-Epigenomic Signaling Pathways Changes in Cellular Differentiation Process cellular differentiation process, reprogramming, genetic and epigenetic mechanisms Cellular differentiation is a highly complex process and we need a deeper understanding of their mechanisms. Reprogramming somatic cells follows the inverse order to the physiologic differentiation process. Reprogramming somatic cells may be used as a simplistic model to understand the cellular differentiation process. The generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) requires going along through a complex network of genetic and epigenetic pathways. Dedifferentiation from somatic cells to iPSCs involves multiple genetic-epigenetic signaling pathways to obtain high levels of plasticity, self-renewal, motility and loss of specialized cellular functions. Eleven main signaling pathways have been involved in cell fate control and embryonic patterning. Extensive crosstalk among epigenetic pathways modifies DNA, histones and nucleosomes which make up the epigenetic mechanisms of gene regulation in differentiation and reprogramming processes. Science and Education Publishing 2013-04-03 http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajbr/1/2/3 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:123 2013-03-26
An Investigation into Access Issues Affecting Historic Built Environment disability, access, conservatio, access audits The need to reconcile access issues and conservation has become ever more important as legislation has become more demanding of service providers. From October 2004 service providers have had a duty of care to provide and improve access within their buildings. This has come into direct conflict with Conservation Legislation which protects the historic value and significance of listed buildings. The paper focuses on the pejorative attitudes that have historically been held against the disabled community and highlights the barriers that the built environment creates. Research aims were to: visit three listed English heritage buildings of differing age and construction and; investigate the changes taken place as a result of the Disability Discrimination Acts (DDA) ; investigate whether these adaptations satisfy Approved Document M (ADM) and DDA criteria and have improved access for all while still considering and maintaining conservation and historical requirements. With these aims, following the literature review, three case studies were conducted. The findings revealed that although all three buildings were mostly compliant with the requirements of ADM, there was a lack of commitment to improve access continually. The recommendations for proper building design and implementation relating to access issues for disabled users and able bodied are analysed. Science and Education Publishing 2013-03-26 http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajcea/1/2/1 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:124 2013-04-03
Sustainable Construction: Analysis of Its Costs and Benefits sustainable construction, benefits of sustainable construction, cost of sustainable construction Sustainability has become the most important issue concerning the construction industry in the 21st century. The objectives of this paper were: to establish if there is an opinion within the industry that sustainability means increased cost; and to investigate whether using sustainable construction methods save money by reducing a buildings carbon output and running costs. Following the literature survey, a questionnaire survey has been carried out to canvas opinions within the industry. Furthermore, comparison of a traditionally built structure (the original college) against a sustainably built one (the structure being built to replace the original building) has been carried out as a case study with respect to the running costs and carbon outputs. The findings revealed that there is an opinion within the industry that sustainability means increased cost and complicated build ability and that using sustainable construction methods save money by reducing a buildings carbon output and running costs. This paper will benefit clients and developers as they can see how incorporating sustainability into new buildings will enable big savings on utility and maintenance costs once the building is operational. Science and Education Publishing 2013-04-03 http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajcea/1/2/2 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:125 2013-04-04
Characterization of Leachate and Solid Waste of Dhaka City Corporation Landfill Site for Solid Waste Stabilization decomposed solid waste, heavy metal, landfill, leachate Rapid urbanization of Dhaka city has created immense pressure on its urban services including solid waste disposal. Both city corporations (Dhaka North, DNCC and Dhaka South, DSCC) have been facing tremendous problem to maintain sustainable waste management over the last few decades. At present, the DNCC and DSCC dump 68% of the total sold waste to the sanitary landfill site at Matuail. Decomposed solid waste is a potential source of heavy metals and toxic chemicals that pollute the soil as well as the surrounding water body. For environmental sustainability, it is now essential to reduce the load of decomposed solid waste at landfill site through the conversion of waste into re-usable product. Proper characterization of solid wastes is pre-requisite for efficient management and solid waste stabilization. In this paper, it is therefore aimed to investigate the physical and chemical characteristics of decomposed solid waste and leachate collected from Matuail landfill sites. The average concentrations of Fe, Cu, and Ni in leachate samples collected from treated pond were found to be 19.11mg/l, 0.71mg/l, and 2.5mg/l respectively exceeding Bangladesh standards. The presence of heavy metals in decomposed solid waste was also found to be significant. In order to reduce the scale of pollution it is recommended to stabilize solid waste to use it as a construction material. Physical properties that were analyzed in this study will also be helpful for selecting stabilizing additive for perfect stabilization. Science and Education Publishing 2013-04-04 http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajcea/1/2/3 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:126 2013-04-04
Shear Predictions of Eurocode EC2 database, shear strength, concrete compressive strength, shear span to depth ratio The shear strength of reinforced concrete members is a function of shear capacity of concrete (Vc), which in turn depends on influencing parameters including concrete compressive strength (f’c), ratio of tension reinforcement (), shear span to depth ratio (a/d), size effect or depth factor (ξ), size of the aggregate in relation to the minimum size of the member (aggregate interlock aspects).Over the last several decades, researchers have tested reinforced concrete beams (without web reinforcement) over a range of variables limited by the breadth and depth of their experimental investigations and on the basis of their experimental results, have proposed empirical equations for predicting the shear capacity of normal and high strength-high performance concrete in reinforced concrete beams. In this paper a relational database using ACCESS software is developed and is populated with experimental results of 2145 shear critical reinforced concrete beams without web reinforcement using both normal as well as high strength –high performance concrete. An evaluation was also conducted to assess the predictive accuracy of shear design equation of Euro Code EC2. The results indicate for beams of normal as well as high strength concrete, the Euro Code EC2 design equation is adequate to accurately predict the shear capacity of reinforced concrete beams over the range of variables considered in this study. Science and Education Publishing 2013-04-04 http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajcea/1/2/4 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:127 2013-04-02
Ribosomal P Antibodies Preceding the Onset of Sle-A Case Report ribosomal P antibody, SLE, ANA Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by the Production of auto antibodies directed against a variety of nuclear and cytoplasmic antigens. Auto antibodies to ribosomal Proteins are found in 15–30% of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. Ribosomal P antibody is shown to predict SLE 1.7 years before clinical onset of SLE. This is a case of 28 year old female patient with a malar rash and nonspecific neurologic symptoms .The antibody profile showed that ANA ,anti- Ds dna and anti- Sm antibodies were negative but anti ribosomal P0 antibody was strongly positive(+++) at presentation. A strong clinical suspicion and careful follow-up helped in making a diagnosis of SLE over a period of nine months. Science and Education Publishing 2013-04-02 http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajcmr/1/2/1 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:128 2013-04-07
An Audit of Medical Students’ Performance in 2 audit, physiology students’ performance, Nigerian medical school There is need for periodic evaluation of medical students’ performance in professional medical examinations. This helps to identify possible gaps in teaching and may offer solutions that could redress such situations. This study is an audit of medical students’ performance in 2nd MBBS professional examinations in physiology at the University of Nigeria Medical School over a 7 year period (2004 – 2010). Data were collected from the Department of Physiology of the university. A total of 2152 students sat for the professional examination over the study period, and 1485 students passed the examination at first attempt giving an overall pass rate of 69%. The pass rate from 2008 when medical doctors (clinicians) with fellowships were employed as lecturers (tutors) to teach physiology was significantly higher than the pass rate before this reform (2004 – 2007) when mainly non-clinicians taught physiology [(76.5%), (n =1646) vs 63.4% (n=1364); P<0.0001]. The ongoing reforms in physiology department that brought about the employment of clinicians as lecturers to teach medical physiology is good and should be reviewed with time. These reforms should further be expanded to include provision of adequate modern infrastructure and teaching aids in order to keep pace with increasing enrolment into medical school. Science and Education Publishing 2013-04-07 http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajcmr/1/2/2 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:129 2013-03-31
Effect of Biomass and Sugar in Citric Acid Production by citric acid, Aspergillus niger, substrate, Prescott salt Under surface culture condition, a number of cheap indigenous raw materials like cane molasses and jackfruits were selected for citric acid fermentation and gamma ray induced mutant strains of 14/20 and 79/20 of Aspergillus niger were used. The rate of citric acid production was also influenced by biomass production and residual sugar used. In both cases on the day 13 without presence of Prescott salt for the mutant strain of Aspergillus niger 14/20 the citric acid production was highest. The biomass production was found different in various fermentation medium. It was found to increase with the increase of fermentation period and maximum biomass was found on day 13. It is also found that biomass production was higher in mutant strain of A. niger 14/20 than 79/20. In addition to this, wet-weight biomass was higher than dry weight biomass. Without presence of Prescott salt, wet weight of mycelial body of the fungus Aspergillus niger 14/20 was found highest on day 13 in mixed substrates which was 160.15. Mixed substrate prepared with molasses and jackfruit media was proved to be the best and potential for biomass production. Sugar utilization rate was also different in various media during citric acid production by A. niger 14/20 and 79/20. Prescott salt was also found to have remarkable effect on sugar utilization for citric acid production except on days 0, 3 and 5. In presence of Prescott salt, sugar utilization was lower than without presence of Prescott salt in the molasses, jackfruit and mixed fermentation media during production of citric acid. With the increase of fermentation period, sugar concentration in the medium was reduced and maximum reduction was found on day 13. Without presence of Prescott salt and in mixed fermentation medium the highest production of citric acid was found by further mutated Aspergillus niger 14/20 which was about 16.16mg/ml. Science and Education Publishing 2013-03-31 http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajfn/1/1/1 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:13 2013-02-15
Prevalence and Polymorphism in Interferon-γ Gene (CA) Repeats with Different Stages of Endometriosis Different stages of endometriosis, Prevalence, Interferon-γ gene polymorphism Background: Endometriosis is a female physical disorder that happens when cells from the lining of the womb (uterus) grow in other areas of the body i.e., outside of uterine cavity and leads to infertility. It represents a major personal and public health concern. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence and interferon-gamma gene CA-repeats polymorphism in patients with different stages of endometriosis.Methodology/Principal Findings: It is a case control prevalence study carried out in gynecology research centre. The mutational analysis of Interferon-γ gene CA repeats were tested for association in 356 affected women with different stages of disease and 372 women with no evidence of disease. The prevalence of endometriosis was accounted in 44.95% of infertile women. All the women were of South Indian origin and ascertained from the same infertility clinic. The broad IFN-gamma genotype and allele frequencies in all patients with different stages of endometriosis varied significantly from that in the control women (χ2 = 8.2690, 4 df, P =0.0822). The disparity in distribution was due to an increase in the a13 (114 bp) allele in the patients with endometriosis (χ2 =13.2394, p= 0.00027, OR=1.6656, 95.0% CI=1.263-2.1953). Conclusions/Significance: Significant difference was experiential in universal allele frequencies between the control women and specifically, women with endometriosis staging were tilted in the direction of minimal (39.04%) and mild disease (33.98%). Therefore, we conclude that interferon-gamma CA-repeat polymorphism may influence the likelihood of a woman developing different stages of endometriosis irrespective of its incidence. Science and Education Publishing 2013-02-15 http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajmbr/1/1/1 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:130 2013-04-01
Decolorization of Reactive Black 5 by biodegradation, decolorization, Azo dyes, Reactive Black 5, Yarrowia lipolytica Yarrowia lipolytica NBRC 1658 could decolorize Reactive Black 5 effectively through biodegradation. The optimum conditions such as initial pH, glucose concentration, nitrogen concentration and initial dye concentration were determined. Correlations between decolorization and laccase and manganese peroxidase activities were investigated. Neither laccase nor manganese peroxidase (MnP) activities were determined in culture mediums. Y. lipolytica could decolorize 97% percentage of 50mg l-1 RB5 dye within 24 hours and could tolerate up to 300 mg l-1 of dye. It was found that decolorization occurred during the exponential growth phase. Aerobic batch conditions with 5g l-1 glucose and 1g l-1 ammonium sulphate at pH 7 were considered to be the optimum decolorizing conditions. Science and Education Publishing 2013-04-01 http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajmr/1/2/1 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:131 2013-04-03
Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Methicillin Resistant MRSA, antibiotic, susceptibility pattern, septicemia, children Septicemia is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among children in India. A wide variety of bacterial and fungal pathogen can cause septicemia. The objective of the present study is to determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus from septicemia suspected children. A cross-sectional study was undertaken from June, 2011 to August, 2012. A total of 300 children were screened. Study subjects were conveniently selected until the required sample size is full filled; blood samples were collected, transported and microbiologically processed using standard procedures; and data was cleaned and entered into a computer and statistical analysis was performed using SPSS for windows version 16. 88 (29.3%) were culture positive. S. aureus was the prominent isolate 26 (29.54 %). Of which 8(30.76% were methicillin resistant (MRSA). The present study reveals MRSA isolates were resistant to mostly all antibiotics and were sensitive to oxacillin and vancomycin. Science and Education Publishing 2013-04-03 http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajmr/1/2/2 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:132 2013-04-05
Screening Thermo- and Ethanol Tolerant Bacteria for Ethanol Fermentation Bacillus subtilis, ethanol fermentation, ethanol tolerance, thermophilic bacteria, thermotolerance The thermophilic bacteria receive considerably interest nowadays because of a current challenge of increasing global temperature. Particularly for ethanol production, the thermo-ethanologenic bacteria possess advantages due to lower contamination risk, cost saving in industrial scale, and the wide range of sugars utilization. In this study, 13 bacterial isolates obtained from the previous isolation study were tested for their fermentative capacity and ethanol tolerance at high temperatures. Five bacterial isolates HM2, M2, MC3, MR1 and RD were found to be tolerant up to 12% ethanol. Of which HM2, M2 and MR1 could ferment glucose well at 30, 35 and 40°C, particularly isolates HM2 and MR1 could perform the fermentative capacity at 45°C and even 50°C. In the presence of 12, 16, and 20% w/v glucose, isolates HM2, M2, and MR1 showed the high fermentation rate by giving high gas production; however, the rate slightly decreased in the presence of 24% w/v glucose. The fermentative performance by these three isolates could happen at different pH levels of 4.0, 5.0 and 6.0. The favourable conditions of ethanol fermentation were found at 18.5% glucose, pH 5.0, and 33°C for isolate HM2 and at 14% glucose, pH 5.5, and 40°C for isolate MR1. The results of sequencing analysis of partial 16S rRNA gene showed that the gene sequences of the selected isolate HM2 shared 99% similarity with Bacillus subtilis. Science and Education Publishing 2013-04-05 http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajmr/1/2/3 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:133 2013-04-06
Biodegradation of the Synthetic Pyrethroid, Fenvalerate by pesticide, pyrethroid, fenvalerate, P.viridiflava, HPLC A current environmental concern is the contamination of aquatic ecosystems due to pesticide discharges from manufacturing plant, agricultural runoff, leaching, accidental spills and other sources. The degradation of synthetic pyrethroids in the environment is an important index in the evaluation of ecological risk of pesticides. Microorganisms play a significant role in detoxifying pesticides in the environment. There are few reports on the degradation of pyrethroid insecticides in soils. This study may provide basis for prevention and control of synthetic pyrethroid, fenvalerate pollution. The present study investigated the potential of the chosen bacterium, a natural isolate Pseudomonas viridiflava isolated from an agricultural field and its degradation efficiency was evaluated by the assessment of various parameters like pH, carbon dioxide, turbidity and esterase activity during the long term and short term degradation process. HPLC analysis revealed that the peaks with different retention time and disappearance of several peaks confirm the degradation of fenvalerate by P. viridiflava. These findings suggest that the utilization of fenvalerate by P .viridiflava may be a feasible treatment option for the removal of pesticides from soil environment. Science and Education Publishing 2013-04-06 http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajmr/1/2/4 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:134 2013-02-28
Tungsten Direct Recovery from W-Cu Alloy Scrap by Selective Digestion via FeCl tungsten-copper scrap, direct recovery, FeCl Tungsten alloys are the subject of many recycling studies due to the scarcity of the tungsten sources and environmental considerations to reuse metal scraps. In the current investigation, direct recovery of tungsten from W-10.5 wt.% powder metallurgy parts were performed by FeCl3 selective digestion of copper binder. The experiments were performed at different salt concentrations, times of digestion, pH values, temperatures and scrap particle sizes. The copper was effectively driven out from W-Cu scrap with increase in FeCl3 concentration. FeCl3 to scrap weight ratio of 2/1 at room temperature for 24 h, yielded 97% copper removal and tungsten recovery was raised to 75.2%. Complete removal of copper was occurred at elevated temperature accompanied with acidic conditions. However the tungsten direct recovery efficiency fall as low as 50%. XRD analysis indicated the formation of tungsten oxide while turnings attacked by FeCl3. Tungsten oxide corroded at high temperatures and low pH values and reduced tungsten recovery. Science and Education Publishing 2013-02-28 http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajmse/1/1/1 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:135 2013-03-15
Preparation of Alumina-Iron Oxide Compounds by Coprecipitation Method and Its Characterization Fe Fe2O3-Al2O3 compounds with different Fe/Al compositions were synthesized by coprecipitation (CP) method and calcined at 300°-1000°C. The formation of crystalline phases (e.g., maghemite, hematite), transformation temperature, specific surface area, lattice parameter, crystallite size, magnetic properties of iron oxide were all affected by the component ratio and thermal treatment. Science and Education Publishing 2013-03-15 http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajmse/1/1/2 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:136 2013-02-28
Ab Initio Calculations of Electronic Properties of Si plane wave method, band structure, density of states First-principles calculations have been used to investigate the electronic properties of the ternary alloy SixSn1-x using full potential-linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method within density functional theory (DFT).The energy bands along high symmetry directions, the density of states and valence charge density distributions cut through various planes are presented. The first principles band structure calculations reported here were carried out using Becke-Johnson Modified method. This exchange potential provides significantly improved results. The virtual crystal approximation (VCA) was adopted to model the alloy. The SixSn1-x binary alloy shows the direct band gap for appropriate composition of Si and Sn and analysis suggests also pseudo-direct band gaps. The results have been discussed in terms of previously existing experimental and theoretical data. Science and Education Publishing 2013-02-28 http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajmse/1/1/3 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:137 2013-03-25
Preparation and Catalytic Activity of Gold Nanoparticles Stabilized by Poly(N-Vinylpyrrolidone) and Deposited onto Aluminum Oxide gold nanoparticles, poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone), stabilization, deposition, aluminium oxide, catalysis Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) stabilized by poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) were prepared by “one-pot” synthetic protocol and characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, DLS and TEM. According to DLS measurements the average size of AuNPs stabilized by PVP in aqueous solution is varied from 10 to 25nm. The PVP stabilized AuNPs (AuNPs-PVP) were deposited on the surface of aluminum oxide (Al2O3/AuNPs-PVP) and its catalytic activity was evaluated with respect to decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. It was found that the amount of AuNPs-PVP deposited onto Al2O3 is extremely low and in the range of 0.06-0.1%. TEM images reveal that the average size of AuNPs-PVP deposited on the surface of Al2O3 is equal to 10-30 nm. The rate of H2O2 decomposition in the presence of Al2O3/AuNPs-PVP exhibits induction period in dependence of the molecular weight of PVP and increases in the following order PVP-350103 > PVP-40103 > PVP-10103. Science and Education Publishing 2013-03-25 http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajn/1/1/1 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:138 2013-03-28
Phyto-synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Extracts of silver nanoparticles, Ipomoea indica, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope The use of silver nanoparticles in the field of nanomedicine is keeping pace and innovating with the ever expanding horizon of Nanobiotechnology. Ipomea species is widely cultivated and use for different purposes, such as, nutritional, medicinal, ritual and agricultural. The present study deals with the synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using methonolic extract of Ipomoea indica flowers. UV-visible spectroscopy studies were carried out to assess the formation silver nanoparticles. The formation of Ag-NPs was confirmed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) studies. SEM image revealed that silver nanoparticles are quite polydispersed, the size ranging from 10nm to 50nm. The formation of crystalline silver nanoparticles was zconfirmed using X-ray diffraction analysis. Extracellular synthesis of Ag nanoparticles using dried biomass appears to be cost effective, eco-friendly to that of conventional methods of nanoparticles synthesis. Science and Education Publishing 2013-03-28 http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajn/1/1/2 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:139 2013-04-06
Electric and Dielectric Study of Zinc Substituted Cobalt Nanoferrites Prepared by Solution Combustion Method DC resistivity, dielectric properties, nanoferrites In the present work, zinc substituted cobalt nanoferrites, with formula Co(1-x)ZnxFe2O4 (x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4), have been prepared by solution combustion method and are investigated for their electric and dielectric properties such as dc resistivity, dielectric constant and dielectric loss. Analysis of the X-ray diffraction pattern of all the samples confirmed the formation of spinel structure. The surface morphology of the samples is studied by using TEM. The dc resistivity was found to be increasing with an increasing substitution of zinc ions and the high value of dc resistivity, 108 Ω cm, make these nanoferrites more suitable at high frequency applications. Dielectric constant and dielectric loss tangent, measured in the frequency range from 1kHz to 1MHz, are found to be decreasing with an increase in frequency. Possible mechanisms responsible for the results are discussed minutely in this paper. Science and Education Publishing 2013-04-06 http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajn/1/1/3 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:14 2013-02-15
The Influence of Ethanol on Pyruvate Kinases Activity in Vivo, in Vitro, in Silico Ethanol, Muscle pyruvate kinase, Liver pyruvate kinase, Acute alcohol intoxication, Chronic ethanol intoxication, Ligand docking The influence of ethanol on enzymatic activities of muscle and liver pyruvate kinases has been studied in rats in series of in vivo and in vitro experiments accompanied by in silico study. Activity of muscle pyruvate kinase significantly decreased in experiments on acute alcohol intoxication (5.0g/kg of body weight), during chronic alcohol consumption (3.5g/kg of body weight 2 times a day for 14 and 28 days) and during the abstinence after the period of alcohol consumption (5.0g/kg of body weight 2 times a day for 5 days). Activity of liver pyruvate kinase was not decreased in rats after the period of alcohol consumption (5.0g/kg of body weight 2 times a day for 5 days) and during chronic alcohol consumption (3.5g/kg of body weight 2 times a day for 28 days). It even became significantly higher during the chronic alcohol consumption (3.5g/kg of body weight 2 times a day) lasting for 14 days. Inhibitory effect of alcohol bolus on activities of both pyruvate kinases should be linked with certain indirect mechanisms, since direct inhibitory effect was seen in vitro only after the addition of 500 mM ethanol to the rat muscle and liver supernatants. Since lactate dehydrogenase is used in a coupled assay for pyruvate kinase activity estimation we approved that 500mM ethanol did not inhibit lactate dehydrogenase activity in human plasma. Direct inhibition of pyruvate kinases activities should be due to the ability of ethanol to bind amino acid residues from the known allosteric site for alanine binding on muscle and liver pyruvate kinases shown by us with the help of molecular docking. Indirect activation of liver pyruvate kinase can be explained by the increase of glucose blood levels in rats during alcohol consumption promoting dephosphorylation of the enzyme as well as expression of the gene coding for it, and the decrease of alanine concentration in liver. Science and Education Publishing 2013-02-15 http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajmbr/1/1/2 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:140 2013-04-01
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring and Population Pharmacokinetics of Digoxin in Jordanian Patients digoxin, population pharmacokinetics, TDM, NONMEM Therapeutic monitoring of digoxin and the population pharmacokinetic parameters in Jordanian patients were done. Fifty three patients visited cardiac department of Jordan University hospital participated in this study, thirty two patients had congestive heart failure (CHF), while twenty one patients had atrial fibrillation (AF). Ninety three blood samples were collected from those patients for the measurement of digoxin level using AxSYM digoxin II assay method. Serum creatinine and potassium levels were also measured, in addition to blood pressure and heart rate. Microsoft Excel and Statistica programs were used for kinetic and statistical analysis. NONMEM computer program ADVAN 4 and 2 compartment model was used for population analysis of digoxin parameters. The serum digoxin level ranged from 0.11-4 ng/ml. The percentage of all patients enrolled in this study that were out of therapeutic range was 49.05%. Serum digoxin levels were out of therapeutic range in 53.12% of patients with CHF and 42.85% in those with AF. The pharmacokinetic parameters for digoxin obtained in this study using traditional methods were: creatinine clearance CLcr (89.78 ± 45.61 ml/min), digoxin actual clearance CL (200.57 ± 154.52 L/day), volume of distribution V (541.57 ± 149.87L), t1/2(2.98 ± 2.05 day), elimination rate constant (0.41± 0.396 day-1). A strong correlation was also found between actual digoxin clearance with log dose normalized (R2=0.999), and t1/2 (R2= 0.875). No correlations were found between the log of the normalized dose and other pharmacokinetic parameters or potassium levels. The population pharmacokinetic parameter for digoxin obtained in this study were: CL (3.34L/h), Vc (3.27L), Vt (123L), inter-compartment clearance Q (72L/h), absorption rate constant KA (1.25h-1). In Jordanian patients with either AF or CHF digoxin dose adjustment based on therapeutic drug monitoring principles is recommended. Digoxin pharmacokinetics were similar to those reported in non-Jordanian patients; estimated population pharmacokinetic parameters were in agreement with literature values. Science and Education Publishing 2013-04-01 http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajps/1/2/1 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:141 2013-04-29
Effects of Amlodipine and Hydrochlorothiazide Combination Therapy on Lipid Profiles in Hypertensive Nigerians Amlodipine, hydrochlorothiazide, antihypertensive combination therapy, lipid profiles, nigerians There is paucity of information regarding the effects of combination therapy with amlodipine and hydrochlorothiazide on lipid profiles in hypertensive Nigerians. Therefore, to evaluate whether this combination therapy would ameliorate or aggravate the known metabolic adversity of hydrochlorothiazide on lipid parameters, 90 male and female Nigerians aged 31-86 years with newly diagnosed uncomplicated essential hypertension (blood pressure > 160/90 ≤ 180/120mmHg) were enrolled into a randomised 48-week study. Treatment was initiated in the patients, who were 30 each in amlodipine, hydrochlorothiazide and amlodipine-hydrochlorothiazide groups, with amlodipine 5mg, hydrochlorothiazide 25mg and amlodipine 5mg + hydrochlorothiazide 25mg, respectively. Body mass index, blood pressure and lipid profiles were evaluated at baseline as well as at the end of weeks 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48. The 3 regimens significantly (p<0.05) reduced blood pressure. At the end of week 48, mean male/female % significant decrease or increase in lipid parameters in amlodipine, hydrochlorothiazide and amlodipine-hydrochlorothiazide groups were, respectively: -4.3/-1.5, 2.8/3.7 and 2.6/2.5, p<0.0001 for total cholesterol; -7.2/-2.6, 5.3/5.6 and 6.6/6.2, p<0.0001 for triglyceride; 16.5/19.6, -12.0/-8.6 and -7.8/-8.4, p<0.0001 for high density lipoprotein cholesterol; -4.6/-3.0, 5.6/11.7 and 4.5/8.0, p<0.0001 for low density lipoprotein cholesterol. This study demonstrates that beyond reducing blood pressure, amlodipine and hydrochlorothiazide combination therapy has varied effects on lipid panel and it also suggests that, with regard to cardiovascular risk profile, it may be preferable to initiate treatment with a regimen of amlodipine to which hydrochlorothiazide is subsequently added, instead of a regimen of hydrochlorothiazide to which amlodipine is later added or a regimen of ab initio amlodipine-hydrochlorothiazide combination therapy. Science and Education Publishing 2013-04-29 http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajps/1/2/2 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:142 2013-04-03
Designing of Novel 6(H)-1,3,4-Thiadiazine Derivatives as MMP12 Inhibitors: A MLR and Docking Approach 6(H)-1,3,4-thiadiazine analogues, QSAR, MLR, docking, MMP12 inhibitors Here 6(H)-1,3,4-thiadiazine analogues have been used to correlate the inhibiting constant with the eccentric connectivity index (ECI), fragment complexity (FC), McGowan volume (MG) and topological polar surface area (TPSA) for studying the quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR). Correlation may be an adequate predictive model which can help to provide guidance in designing and subsequently yielding greatly specific compounds that may have reduced side effects and improved pharmacological activities. The literature survey revealed that there are so many models available for MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-7, MMP-8, MMP-9 and MMP-13, but QSAR model in respect of MMP-12 inhibition was necessity. We have used multiple linear regression (MLR) for developing QSAR model. For the validation of the developed QSAR model, statistical analysis such as cross validation test, standard deviation, quality factor, fischers test, root mean square deviation (RMSD), variance; and internal validation such as Y-randomization test have been performed and all the tests validated this QSAR model with fraction of variance r2 = 0.9364 and LOO-CV variance q2= 0.9146. Thirteen novel 6(H)-1,3,4-thiadiazine analogues have been designed and their inhibiting constant have been calculated with the developed QSAR model. It was found that the calculated inhibiting constant of these analogues were within the same range as of the training set. Further, these 6(H)-1,3,4-thiadiazine analogues have been docked with the catalytic domain of human matrix metalloproteinase (MMP12) which shows better docking score as compared to the (N-hydroxy-2-(N-hydroxyethyl)biphenyl-4-ylsulfonamido) acetamide, a MMP12 inhibitor. The results suggested that the designed novel 6(H)-1,3,4-thiadiazine analogues could be developed as a good MMP12 inhibitors. Science and Education Publishing 2013-04-03 http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajps/1/2/3 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:143 2013-03-23
Physical Self-Concept and Its Relationship to Exercise Dependence Symptoms in Young Regular Physical Exercisers exercise behavior, exercise addiction, gender, physical self-perception The study aimed to investigate whether certain physical self-concept predicted exercise dependence among young regular exercisers using a multidimensional prospective. One hundred fifty-two regular gym users, 78 were male and 74 female, completed: Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ), Exercise Dependence Scale-21 (EDS-21), and Eating Disorder Inventory–2 (EDI-2). Correlation and regression analyses were calculated to determine the relationship between physical self-concept and exercise dependence behaviors. Significant correlations were found, confirming that exercise dependence symptoms and physical self-concept domains were related each other. In addition, results showed that multidimensional model of self-concept is a strong predictor for exercise dependence both for male and female. Science and Education Publishing 2013-03-23 http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajssm/1/1/1 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:144 2013-03-22
Essential Oxygen Oil for Treatment of Sport-Related Injuries essential oxygen oil, pain oil, topical analgesic, sports injury Sport-related injuries to amateur and professional athletes are responsible for about 10% of emergency department visits and for acute and chronic treatment in a variety of other healthcare settings. Many sport-related injuries involve muscle and joint-tissues such as tendons and ligaments. Clinicians may be understandably reticent to treat such musculoskeletal injuries with systemic analgesics and might opt for topical analgesics for localized rather than systemic pain relief. A novel product, essential oxygen oil (OxyRub™ essential oxygen oil, CreoMed, Naples, FL), has been previously clinically tested in a variety of non-athlete patients. It has been available as an over-the-counter natural massage or comfort oil in Europe for over a decade and has recently become available in the United States. This paper reviews several pilot trials conducted in Europe (and other reports) involving the use of this topical analgesic in top athletes. Competitive athletes are frequently injured, sometimes severely, and typically cope well with pain. Thus, this population is an important one for the evaluation of a topical analgesic product. The essential oxygen oil worked well and was well tolerated. Science and Education Publishing 2013-03-22 http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajssm/1/1/2 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:145 2013-03-25
Digital Image Correlation using GPU Computing Applied to Biomechanics digital image correlation,GPU computing,parallel computing, CUDA DIC an extremely effective, non-contact analysis tool applied here to biomechanics research, in order to examine the strain pattern due to wrist extension and calf stretching experiments. The DIC code developed computes the in-plane strain with a correlation function, using pictures taken before and after extension, using a CCD camera. The shift between the initial picture and subsequent one is calculated by computing cross-correlation using FFT. The intermediate FFT cross correlation step can be computationally expensive depending upon the field of application, like biomechanics involving high computational power. This paper explains the methodology for harnessing the power of GPU for Image Processing and Computer Vision, thereby providing dramatic speedups on commodity, readily available graphics hardware. Further, a brief review of the DIC algorithms mapped to the GPU vision is presented. The latest NVIDIA CUDA programming model is explained in order to achieve parallelism without the need for graphics expertise. The paper also gives a detailed description of GPU architectures, GPU computing, the software environments used for programming followed by the advantages and disadvantages of the technique. Further, the paper proves the capability and superiority of powerful GPU computing with CPU on the basis of runtime analysis, applied to biomechanical experiments. The paper presents the results with huge speed ups in both biomechanical experiments. Science and Education Publishing 2013-03-25 http://pubs.sciepub.com/bse/1/1/1 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:146 2013-03-01
Investigation on Early Development, the Feeding Ability and Larval Survival under Starvation in Common Meagre, Sciaenidae, Argyrosomus regius, larva starvation, PNR, yolk and lipid absorption, survival The development of Argyrosomus regius early development stages (embryonic, yolk sac and newly larval) was studied, with emphasis on yolk and lipid absorption. The effect of a progressively delayed initial feeding on the feeding ability and survival of this species was also examined. The number of days from hatching after which the feeding rate dropped to half the initial highest feeding rate or the point of no return (PNR) was determined. In May of 2010, the experimental eggs were obtained by natural spawning from captive broodstock (F1 generation cultured specimens). The embryo, yolk sac and larval stages of meagre were reared in laboratory conditions on temperature of 19°C and 35ppt salinity. Eggs present a diameter of 1.056±0.010mm, a volume of 0.616mm3 and a wet weight of 0.718±0.033mg, while they contain one lipid globule of 0.265±0.005mm diameter and 0.010mm3 volume. The total length of meagre larvae after hatching and at the onset of exogenous feeding was measured 2.621±0.037mm and 3.492±0.051mm, respectively. The yolk sac reserves were consumed 60h after hatching, while the reserves of oil globule exhausted 156h after hatching. The percentage of larvae with visible gut contents was maximal 108h after hatching and decreased to half (PNR) just 12h after this point or 120h after hatching. The findings indicate a high rate of food demand for this species. Science and Education Publishing 2013-03-01 http://pubs.sciepub.com/jas/1/1/1 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:147 2013-03-01
Effects of Clove Seed as Anaesthetic Agents in Two Species of Grey Mullets anaesthetics, clove, seed mullets aquaculture The effects of Clove Seed extracts as anaesthetic agents in two species of grey mullets Liza Falcipinnis and Liza grandisquamis were assessed. A total of 120 of these species comprising 60 L. Falcipinnis with 30 each of fingerlings (mean length 9.86cm ± 1.11 SD: mean weight 21.20g ± 2.10 SD) and juveniles (mean length 17.24cm ±1.88 SD; mean weight 66.24g ± 4.24SD) and 60 L. grandisquamis also consists of 30 each of fingerlings (mean length 10.24cm ± 1.92 SD; mean weight 23.41 ± 2.21 SD) and juveniles (mean length 18.21cm ±SD; mean weight 71.21g ± 4.12 SD) were sampled from the recruitment ponds at African Regional Aquaculture Center, (ARAC), Buguma, Rivers State and were exposed to clove seed extracts at different concentrations of 0.0mg/L (control), 5.0, 10.0, 15.0, 20.0 and 25.0mg/L. The results obtained indicated a size related response, to Clove seed extracts. The induction time in both species were found to decreased significantly (P < 0.05) as the concentrations of the clove extracts increased with the shortest induction time 55.61(s) observed in fingerlings of L. grandisquamis, while the longest 210.61 (s) was recorded in juveniles of L. falcipinnis. However, the recovery time increased significantly with increasing concentration of the clove seed, with the highest recovery time of 350.11 (s) observed in L. falcipinnis, at 25.0mglL concentration and the lowest 246.91(s) in L. grandisquamis at 5.0mg/L concentration of the clove extracts, with the optimum dosage of 10.0mg/l and 15.0mg/l for fingerlings and juvenile sizes respectively. Interestingly, the survival of the exposed fish during the trial was 100% in both sizes of the two species,as no mortality was recorded in all concentrations of the plant extracts. The findings of this trial, indicated that clove seed extracts was effective, producing minimum stress and zero mortalities and therefore can be recommended as an effective anaesthetic for use in aquaculture. Science and Education Publishing 2013-03-01 http://pubs.sciepub.com/jas/1/1/2 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:148 2013-03-31
Healthy Benefit of Microalgal Bioactive Substances microalgae, antioxidant, nutrition, biological activities, functional food Microalgae have been widely used as novel sources of bioactive substances. Along with this trend, the possibility of replacing synthetic preservatives with natural ones is receiving much attention. In general, microalgae are rich in various phytochemicals like carotenoids, phycocayanine, phenolics, amino acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and sulphated polysaccharides. These compounds are providing excellent various biological actions including, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiviral, antitumoral, anti-inflammatory and anti-allergy effects. Their healthy benefit seemed to be due to different biochemical mechanisms. However, some microalgae species such as Chlorella, Spirulina and Dunaliella species have been used in several areas in nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, cosmetics, nutrition and functional quality of foods. In 2006, World Health Organization has been described Spirulina as one of the greatest super-foods on earth serving as an example of the potential of microalgae. This review provides background on current and future uses of microalgae as novel source of health promoting compounds. Science and Education Publishing 2013-03-31 http://pubs.sciepub.com/jas/1/1/3 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:149 2013-03-27
Fleet & Convoy Management Using VANET vehicular ad-hoc network (VANET), fleet management, convoy management, test bed development, local dynamic map In this paper, a Fleet/Convoy Management System, based on the GeoNet architecture for Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET) is discussed and implemented. Fleet or convoy management is a special case of VANET, where nodes require communication to same type of other nodes as well as to backend server. Critical applications have been identified which are required for improving the load management and overall efficiency of such networks. The design is based on four major applications of location update, enabling vehicles to chat with each other using text and voice and providing emergency alarms through broadcast. The geographical locations of the nodes are continuously updated and displayed graphically on local dynamic maps. A test bed for the model has been developed, discussed and used for performance analysis. Science and Education Publishing 2013-03-27 http://pubs.sciepub.com/jcn/1/1/1 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:15 2013-02-15
Antimicrobial Activities of the Henna Extract and Some Synthetic Naphthoquinones Derivatives Antimicrobial activity, bioactives compounds, naphthoquinone; synthesis Naphthoquinones are compounds widely distributed in the environment, both as natural products and as pharmaceutical agents. They have been the subject of much research due to their pharmacological activities. In this study, methanol extract of henna and a series of synthesized structural analogue of lawsone have been assessed for their antimicrobial activities. Methanol extract of henna and eight naphthoquinones derivatives were tested as potential antimicrobial agents against twelve bacteria and three Candida species using the agar disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods according to guidelines recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Besides 2b and 3b, methanol extract and all the synthesized compounds 1a, 2a, 1b and 1c, 2c and 3c showed weak-to-strong activity against at least one tested strain. However, the compounds 1c and 1b were found to have the most effective activity against pathogenic bacteria and displayed an activity 8 to 64 fold higher than that othe structural analogue, lawsone. Their MICs ranged from 8-64 µg ml-1. Henna extract was found to have an interesting activity. Our results indicate an effective in vitro activity of 1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives and suggest the benefits of further studies for its application in antibiotherapy. Science and Education Publishing 2013-02-15 http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajmbr/1/1/3 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:150 2013-03-21
QoS Routing Algorithm with Sleep Mode in MANETs mobile ad-hoc networks, AODV routing protocols, energy consumption, sleep mode, mobility models, simulation analysis MANET became the focus of researchers as an assurance technology for a broad range of due to their self-managing and self-configuring multi-hop wireless networks since the nodes are mobile, the network topology may change rapidly and unpredictably over time. An ad hoc network, or MANET (Mobile Ad-hoc Network), is a network contain only of nodes, with no Access Point. One significant area of research within ad hoc networks is energy consumption concern. The primary aim of ad hoc networks is to call for the energy-constrained protocols. Energy consumption evaluation methodology is set up for the protocol consideration in different mobile network. AODV routing protocol carry out well on assessment of energy consumption for the mobile ad hoc network with high node mobility. Nodes in MANET networks are basically battery operated, and thus have way in to a limited amount of energy. This process recommended an Energy based Ad-Hoc on-Demand Routing algorithm that balances energy among nodes so that a minimum energy level is maintained among nodes and the lifetime of network is enhanced. This paper, aim on increasing the prolonged existence of node in the network in our proposed algorithm, QS (QoS Scheme for MANET’s), addresses the issue of energy consumption in a manner fair to all network nodes. In our proposed scheme “energy aware routing” QS is suggested to use. The QS makes sure the connected and neighboring nodes to use it as forwarding node. Also, it checks the node with higher energy to make it applicant for forwarding purpose. From a functional point of view, QS can be consisting of two main units: One of these units deal with the energy conservation operation. This is done through uphold the nodes’ threshold energy levels to minimize the packet loss due to link breaks. The other aspect of the algorithm takes care of connectivity using routing protocol. It helps to guarantee the routing protocol makes routing decisions that serve a specific goal. The construct of network scenarios and performance study is done on NS-2.34 to simulate both the AODV and AODV-Sleep under the similar scenario. This paper also compares and analyzes the simulation results with a popular on-demand routing protocol AODV to show the utility of this algorithm. From this simulation one finds that the overall MANET’s efficiency is maximized. Science and Education Publishing 2013-03-21 http://pubs.sciepub.com/jcn/1/1/2 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:151 2013-03-23
Role of Serum Trace Elements in Oral Precancer and Oral Cancer - a Biochemical Study serum, copper, zinc, ratio, iron Several studies in recent years have linked association between micronutrient levels and various forms of cancer. Copper and Zinc have been the most researched micronutrients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the levels of Copper, Zinc and iron in serum of patients with Oral leukoplakia, Oral Submucous Fibrosis and oral Squamous cell carcinoma. There was a highly significant increase in the level of serum copper in Oral submucous fibrosis patients when compared to controls (p=0.001). Serum copper levels were also elevated in oral leukoplakia and oral cancer patients (p=0.01). There was a significant decrease in the serum zinc levels in all three study groups when compared to controls (p=0.001). A highly significant reduction in serum Iron levels was noticed oral submucous fibrosis group. The copper to zinc ratio significantly increased in all the study groups when compared to controls. Results suggest that serum copper and zinc as well as the copper to zinc ratio could be used as biomarkers for oral precancer and cancer. Science and Education Publishing 2013-03-23 http://pubs.sciepub.com/jcrt/1/1/1 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:152 2013-03-30
A New Therapeutic Approach to Treat Oral Mucositis Using Specific MMP Blockers in an Osmotically Active Solution mucositis, extra cellular matrix (ECM), matrix metalloproteases (MMPs), procyanidins (PCDs), tannins, hypertonic Mucositis is a consequence of cytostatic effects of anticancer therapy on the fast growing oral mucosal cells. The size of the ulcer increases due to subsequent bacterial and fungal growth, while the leakage of circulating toxins through damaged capillaries surrounding the ulcers causes severe irritation and burning sensation. Proteolytic enzymes, which are known to destroy cellular matrix, inhibit cell regeneration and healing. We tested OROSOL®, an osmotically active hypertonic solution containing specific protease-inhibiting plant procyanidins capable of cleaning the injury, removing the contaminants and stimulating cell growth as a new multiple therapeutic approach for the treatment of mucositis. Out of 69 total patients, 48 were treated with OROSOL® spray, 4-5 times per day for a period of 28 days. 21 patients in the classical treatment group used standard treatments. The grade of overall mucositis, intensity of pain and burning sensation, formation of new ulcers and effect on eating impairment were evaluated before treatment, 30 minutes after first product application and on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Data were analyzed using SAS 9.1.3. Statistical program. Compared to the classical treatments group, Orosol® group showed significantly higher improvement in pain, burning sensation, eating abilities, grade of infection and overall mucositis. New ulcer formation rate was not affected. Mucositis treatment requires a multiple therapeutic approach of simultaneously eliminating the contaminants and the toxic chemicals from the ulcer as well as creating a favorable ground for healthy cell growth. OROSOL® seems highly effective in achieving these objectives. Science and Education Publishing 2013-03-30 http://pubs.sciepub.com/jcrt/1/1/2 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:153 2013-03-19
High-Temperature Infrared Emitters Based on HgCdTe Grown by Molecular-Beam Epitaxy HgCdTe, infrared emitters, photoluminescence, alloy disorder Prospects of fabrication of high-temperature (up to 300K) infrared emitters based on HgCdTe alloys is discussed on the basis of the results of the study of photoluminescence of hetero-epitaxial structures. The structures were grown by molecular-beam epitaxy and emitted light with wavelength of 1.5 to 4.3µm at room temperature. It is suggested that observation of photoluminescence of the narrow-gap semiconductor at high temperatures and the specific shape of photoluminescence spectra can be explained by taking into account HgCdTe alloy disorder as is the case, for example, in structures based on III-nitrides. Requirements for technology considerations for the optically-pumped high-temperature infrared emitters based on HgCdTe are discussed. Science and Education Publishing 2013-03-19 http://pubs.sciepub.com/joe/1/1/1 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:154 2013-03-26
Design of Refractive Index Profile for Multimode Optical Fibers with Low Differential Mode Delay differential mode delay, multimode optical fibers with low differential mode delay, refractive index profile design and synthesis This work presents an alternative method for design of refractive index profile for silica GeO2-doped graded-index multimode optical fibers 50/125 with low differential mode delay (DMD), providing equalization between group velocities of selected guided modes. Here the objective function is represented as a sum of squares of deviations between points of current iteration group velocity map, which has been calculated over modes with particular orders, and certain reference group velocity value. During the objective function formation it is proposed to take into account only selected guided modes, that depend on the type of laser source and launch conditions. In the given article we represent some results of introduced method approbation with following simulation of fiber optic link based on proposed multimode fibers with low DMD under the core geometry variations. Science and Education Publishing 2013-03-26 http://pubs.sciepub.com/joe/1/1/2 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:155 2013-03-26
Utility of MRI in Blunt Trauma Patients with a Normal Cervical Spine CT and Persistent Midline Neck Pain on Palpation blunt trauma, cervical spine injury, cervical spine imaging, neck pain, spine injury Introduction: The blunt trauma patient with a normal neurologic exam, and persistent midline cervical spine tenderness remains a diagnostic challenge. The patient with a symptomatic neck can be subsequently treated with flexion-extension cervical spine X-rays, MRI of the cervical spine, or no further imaging. Methods: This is a single center, retrospective study that spanned five years. Our current protocol for cervical spine clearance is described, which utilizes neck MRI for the trauma patients with persistent midline neck tenderness, a normal neurologic exam, and a normal CT of the neck. These symptomatic neck patients were identified from the institution's radiology database of patients that had both a CT and an MRI. Results: There were 6237 patients identified during the time of the study, and 81 were found to have both a CT and an MRI of the cervical spine for a symptomatic neck without a neurological deficit. There were 4 patients identified that had a normal CT, and subsequently had a new finding on the MRI scan; all were discharged with their cervical collar on with Spine Specialist followup. Conclusion: In 4.94% of our patients, the MRI had significant findings that changed the management of the patient. We will continue to perform cervical MRI in our symptomatic neck patients after blunt trauma with a normal cervical spine CT. Science and Education Publishing 2013-03-26 http://pubs.sciepub.com/js/1/1/2 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:156 2013-03-15
Acoustical Studies of Some Derivatives of Azomethines in Methanol and N, N-Dimethylformamide at 303.15 K azomethines, ultrasonic velocities, apparent adiabatic molar compressibility, apparent molar volume, methanol, dimethyl- formamide The acoustical parameters of some synthesized azomethines have been studied from ultrasonic velocity and density measurement at different concentration in methanol and dimethyl formamide at 303.15 K. The apparent adiabatic molar compressibilities and apparent molar volume were also evaluated. The results provide useful information about solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions and are of significant help in understanding the behavior of synthesized compounds in solutions. Science and Education Publishing 2013-03-15 http://pubs.sciepub.com/pmc/1/1/1 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:157 2013-03-29
Factors Influencing the Likelihood of Students Seeking Professional Psychological Help fears of psychological treatment, ATSPPHS, likelihood of seeking psychological help A review of previous researches indicated that the likelihood of seeking professional psychological help among students is related to fears of psychological treatment, attitudes towards seeking professional psychological help, gender and prior contact with counselor. A total of 320 students in Malaysia, aged between 15 to 17 were used in the present study to investigate factors influencing the likelihood of students seeking professional psychological help for socialisation, social psychological, personal psychological, family, career and study, school work adjustment andhealth problems related to substance abuse. One way repeated measures ANOVA and multiple regressions were used in the analysis. The result showed a significant difference in the likelihood of seeking professional psychological help for different types of problems. Fears of psychological treatment is the most significant factor that can influence the likelihood of seeking professional psychological help for social psychological problems, personal psychological problems, career and study problems, and school work adjustment problems. Science and Education Publishing 2013-03-29 http://pubs.sciepub.com/rpbs/1/1/1 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:158 2013-03-23
Incidence and Gender Differences for Handedness among Greek Adolescents and Its Association with Familial History and Brain Injury handedness, incidence, gender, familial effect, brain injury Handedness is marked by the preference of one hand over another for fine motor tasks, especially writing. Usually, only one hand is considered dominant; however, there are individuals who exhibit the ability to use both hands equally (mixed-handers). The aim of this study was to identify the incidence for handedness in a sample of Greek adolescents and examine possible gender differences in handedness among these adolescents and their siblings. 634 secondary school students (Mean age 13.38, SD = 1.47) who attended mainstream public schools participated in this study. All students completed the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory (EHI). Students were divided in three groups, namely right-handers (an EHI +50 to +100), mixed-handers (an EHI -49 to +49) and left-handers (an EHI -100 to -50). This process resulted in the classification of 544 adolescents (85.8%) as right-handed, 46 adolescents (7.3%) as left-handed and 44 adolescents (6.9%) as non-lateralized (ambidextrous). Contrary to previous research, the statistical analysis conducted did not reveal any significant differences in the prevalence of handedness between genders. Nevertheless, our data suggest that men might be more prone to ambidexterity. Similarly, although some interesting trends were observed in our data, the statistical analyses performed did not confirm the familial effect upon handedness and the pathological left-handedness hypotheses. The paper concludes with underlining the significance of the evidence presented here and discusses the inconclusive findings often reported in the literature concerning the association of handedness with family history and brain injury. Science and Education Publishing 2013-03-23 http://pubs.sciepub.com/rpbs/1/1/2 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:159 2013-03-12
Toxicity of Individual and Blends of Pure Phytoecdysteroids Isolated from anopheles gambiae, phytoecdysteroids vitex schiliebenii, V. payos Four phytoecdysteroids: (20-hydroxyecdysone-20, 22-monacetonide (1), 20-hydroxyecdysone (2), stigmasterol (3), gamma-sitosterol (4), were investigated for toxic effect against 3rd /4th instar larvae of Anopheles gambiae under laboratory conditions as individual compounds and in blends. The test larvae were treated with solutions containing the phytoecdysteroids of concentrations 1, 5 and 10ppm. The blends were prepared in the ratio of 1:1. Compounds 1 and 2, isolated from acetone extracts of Vitex payos caused 100% mortality at 10ppm. Compound 3 isolated from acetone leaves of V. schiliebenii and compound 4 isolated from acetone stem bark of V. schilebenii also showed potent activity against the larvae at 10ppm. At the lower concentrations, abnormal mobility and impaired development was observed. Phytoecdysteroids (20-hydroxyecdysone-20, 22-monacetonide (1) and 20-hydroxyecdysone (2) are larvicidal against An. gambiae. stigmasterol (3), gamma-sitosterol (4) also show potent IGR activities against An. gambiae. Also addition of compounds 1 and 2 to stigmasterol (3) and gamma-sitosterol (4) seperately improved the activity of the two compounds. Science and Education Publishing 2013-03-12 http://pubs.sciepub.com/wjoc/1/1/1 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:16 2013-02-15
Functional and Anatomical Features of the Dorsal Column Nuclei in Mammals and Lower Animals Gracile, Cuneate, Neurons, Development The dorsal fasciculi of the spinal cord are known as the chief pathways for the conduction of impulses underlying deep sensibility and tactile discrimination from limbs which reach the thalamus and ultimately the cerebral cortex after a relay at a bulbar level, the dorsal column nuclei. It is believed that the development of the dorsal fasciculi and their nuclei in the mammalian and primate series is correlated with increasing sensory discrimination in the skin and the increased development of proprioceptive sense in the limb musculature. In this review we will discuss the reflection of the development of limbs and sensory discrimination in lower animals and mammals on the organization and some functional aspects of these nuclei. Science and Education Publishing 2013-02-15 http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajmbr/1/1/4 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:160 2013-03-17
Synthesis of 2,4,5-Triphenyl Imidazole Derivatives Using Diethyl Ammonium Hydrogen Phosphate as Green, Fast and Reusable Catalyst 2, 4, 5-triarylimidazoles A simple highly versatile and efficient synthesis of 2,4,5-trisubstituted imidazoles is achieved by three component cyclocondensation of 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds, aldehydes and ammonium acetate as ammonia source in thermal solvent free condition using Brønsted acidic ionic liquid diethyl ammonium hydrogen phosphate as catalyst. The key advantages of this process are cost effectiveness of catalyst, reusability of catalyst, easy work-up and purification of products by non-chromatographic methods, excellent yields and very short time reactions. Multicomponent reactions enjoy an outstanding status in organic and medicinal chemistry for their high degree of atom economy and application in the diversity-oriented convergent synthesis of complex organic molecules from simple and readily available substrates in a single vessel. Science and Education Publishing 2013-03-17 http://pubs.sciepub.com/wjoc/1/1/2 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:161 2013-03-09
The Role of Motor Activity in the Self-Esteem of Primary School Pupils children, primary school, motor activity, self- esteem, socialization, development The purpose of this study is to analyze the importance of motor activity in the increase of self-esteem in Primary School pupils. To have positive self-esteem is a significant aspect of the growth of a person as a whole . Depending on the level of self-esteem, individuals take risks in various situations and respond to failure in different ways . Nine year old children are moving towards the threshold of adolescence, a time when physical change is predominant. Therefore, aiming at the development of self-esteem through motor activity has the purpose of building confidence in children who are about to face these changes. In this study, X classes were given two identical tests: the MOVIT test , evaluating physical perceptions and capabilities, and the TMA test , evaluating global and specific self-esteem. Pupils were tested in October and then in the following March. During this period the target group worked on autonomy and on interpersonal relationships by means of planned activities involving team-play.The average test results of the two groups demonstrated that the work group had improved significantly both in the physical field and in self-esteem with respect to the control group, therefore planned motor activities are effective in building self-esteem in Primary school pupils.Motor activity is of vital importance for the development of capacity and cognitive skills and with specific reference to the analyzed case, motor activity influences the growth of self-esteem, leading the subject to a full physical and mental development. Science and Education Publishing 2013-03-09 http://pubs.sciepub.com/education/1/2/1 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:162 2013-03-19
A Microsoft Learning Content Development System (LCDS) Based Learning Package for Electrical and Electronics Technology-Issues on Acceptability and Usability in Nigeria traditional teaching approach, electrical and electronics technology, technology-based learning package, FOSS, LCDS, acceptability, usability This study reported the use of a Free Open Source Software (FOSS), the Microsoft Learning Content Development System (Ms LCDS) to design and develop a learning package in electrical and electronic technology for teaching thermionic emission and investigated the acceptability and usability of the learning package. This study adopted a descriptive survey design. 80 students of electrical and electronics engineering and technology were randomly selected from two higher institutions in the country. A structured questionnaire with a reliability coefficient of 0.89 was used for data collection. Six research questions were raised and data collected was analysed using mean, standard deviation and Multiple Regression at 0.05 level of significance. The research findings revealed high acceptability and usability levels of the learning package (Mean=5.14 and Mean=3.35 respectively). A significant joint effect of self-efficacy, attitude and subjective satisfaction was revealed on acceptability (F (3, 76) =9.458; p<0.05) while a significant joint effect of perceived enjoyment, self-efficacy, attitude and subjective satisfaction was revealed on usability (F (4, 75) =9.418; p<0.05). Based on the findings, it is recommended amongst other things that computer assisted materials or packages be developed for topics that may need some extra support to teach. Science and Education Publishing 2013-03-19 http://pubs.sciepub.com/education/1/2/2 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:163 2013-03-21
A Functional Grammar Approach to Analysing Asian Students’ Writing Asian students’ writing, nominalisation, themes, modals This paper compares aspects of Singaporean and PRC students’ writing at the university level while enrolled in the freshman composition courses. These aspects involve instances of nominalization, theme, and use of modals (or their inappropriate usage) at various parts of the essays submitted by these students. These items are measured and reported in percentages as to gain greater insight to the depth of similarities and differences between the two sets of writing. In addition, the author is concerned that idiosyncractic usage of such anomaly in writing impedes comprehension when reading and is hardly audience-centred. It is noteworthy that the writing of Singaporean and Chinese students do produce various interesting similarities and differences, possibly attributable to their sociolinguistic and educational backgrounds. The implications of the results are analysed and discussed, with possible pedagogical solutions suggested in order to overcome difficulties of teaching separate students with different linguistic abilities. Science and Education Publishing 2013-03-21 http://pubs.sciepub.com/education/1/2/3 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:164 2013-04-05
Universities and Globalisation Flows: African Experience universities, globalisation, Africa, flows, scapes, brain drain The study x-rays the damaging effects of brain drain on university education in Africa as a result of colonisation and globalisation. Despite its positive impact, globalisation has divided the world into the superrich and absolutely poor. Africa is the poorest of the poor. This is supported by Capitalism and the Marxist Theory. The study highlights the fact that Africa’s loss of her talented brains dates back to the 16th century. Today, globalisation has worsened the situation and has given rise to the emergence of supranational institutions as well as neo-liberalism. The study posits that although the human being is a nation’s most important resource, and that human resource is central to economic development, globalisation pressure has damaging effects on poor countries and Africa in particular. Globalisation has permeated the phenomenal world of individuals, creating rifts in various segments of the nation especially in the universities, giving rise to the flight of talents, commonly called brain-drain. The need for Africa to develop credible strategy for progress in the areas that led the cream of her society to leave is highlighted. It is also pointed out that the strategy must address and explore various areas such as economic development, giving space to develop and expand the entrepreneurial talents. Africans in Diaspora should explore ways they can help their continent through diasporic spheres. Science and Education Publishing 2013-04-05 http://pubs.sciepub.com/education/1/2/4 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:165 2013-03-09
Primary Retroperitoneal Mucinous Cystadenoma with Sarcomatous Carcinoma in Mural Nodule retroperitoneal, tumor, surgery, mucinous, cystic, sarcomatoid, review Primary retroperitoneal mucinous cystic tumors are extremely rare neoplasms that usually occur in women. Their histogenesis has not been clarified. Their low incidence has meant that it difficult to define therapeutic strategies or prognosis, or to record survival data. We describe a 35 year-old female with a retroperitoneal mucinous cystadenoma presenting a mural nodule with foci of sarcomatoid carcinoma. The entire tumor was surgically removed. After surgery, the patient received six cycles of carboplatin and paclitaxel. After 30 months of follow up she has shown no signs of recurrence. We review the etiology, diagnosis and therapeutic options in these extremely rare tumors. Science and Education Publishing 2013-03-09 http://pubs.sciepub.com/js/1/1/1 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:166 2013-04-06
Challenges in Teaching Russian Students to Speak English non-native-English-speaking teachers, teacher-centered teaching, student-centered teaching This paper addresses the challenges brought about by the fact that the English language in modern is mostly taught by non-native English speakers in the context of classic ‘teacher-textbook-student’ paradigm. It also highlights the significance of shifting from this teacher-centered approach to EFL teaching and learning process, and presents the results of a teaching experiment aimed at creating a student-centered environment in a language classroom. We suggested that presenting the results of students’ research projects in the form of English-language video films can be an effective means of expanding students’ learning opportunities and eliminating some weaknesses of the artificial language learning environment. After five-year observations over more than 500 students learning EFL at the Petrozavodsk State University (PetrSU) and 20 non-native English-speaking teachers of the same University, we conducted a teaching experiment, which involved 22 students of the History Department and 28 students of the Law Department and resulted in creating two video films on professionally oriented topics chosen by the students and aligned with their fields of study. Our study revealed that students’ filmmaking is an effective tool to support not only such traditional methods as computer-based learning, presentation, research, but also such innovative kinds of work as multimedia or animated presentations. Therefore, making videos in a foreign language proves to be a highly productive way of acquiring English language skills through the use of technology. Science and Education Publishing 2013-04-06 http://pubs.sciepub.com/education/1/2/5 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:167 2013-04-07
Do Amblyopic Eye First, Wait and Do Second Eye Cataract Surgery for Isoametropia, Accomodative Esotropic Amblyopia and Congenital Cataract Case esotropia, congenital cataract, accommodation, strabismus To review a case with isoametropic, accomodative esotropic amblyopia and congenital posterior polar cataract. A 12 years old child with visual acuities 2/10 - 7/10, refractive error +9,00/ +7,00 and congenital cataract was observed previously for 5 years until the visual acuity of the right eye dropped 2 lines due to cataract in the more amblyopic eye. At first more amblyopic eye was operated and then we waited for 1 month to see how the amblyopic eye gains visual acuity. As the visual acuities become the same as 0,7/0,7 other eye was operated. Do amblyopic eye first, wait and do second eye surgery was very successful in our patient. Vısual acuities are 0,7/0,7 and there is no accomodative esotropia. Conclusion: If there is a challenging case with congenital cataract, isoametropic amblyopia and accomodative esotropia together, performing cataract surgery to the amblyopic eye first and postponing the surgery of second eye for the regression of amblyopia could be a choice in this kind of patients. Science and Education Publishing 2013-04-07 http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajmsm/1/2/1 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:168 2013-03-15
Does Frailty Modify the Effect of Race on Influenza Vaccination within Nursing Facilities in Michigan, 2005-2006? vaccination, nursing home, frailty, racial inequity Nursing home racial composition is associated with vaccine uptake; black residents are less well immunized than white residents. To determine if health status modifies the effect of race on receiving vaccination among nursing home residents, we used cross-sectional data from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services for Michigan from October 1, 2005 through March 31, 2006 in 291 racially mixed nursing facilities (n=66,895 residents). Analyses included multilevel models, stratified by the proportion of black residents in the nursing home, to assess whether frailty, measured with the Cognitive Performance Scale (CPS), the Activities of Daily Living (ADL), and the Changes in Health, End-stage disease and Symptoms and Signs (CHESS), contributed to vaccination inequity (i.e., white-black difference) within nursing homes. In facilities with few (<5%) blacks, the median vaccination inequity increased when comparing non-frail to frail (CPS) residents: from 4.4 to 14.5 percentage points; ADL: 3.6 to 8.7; and CHESS: 4.1 to 9.4. Among residents of nursing homes with majority (> 50%) blacks, the inequity decreased with increasing frailty (CPS: 8.7 to 0.8; ADL: 9.3 to 2.1; and CHESS: 6.7 to 4.6). Frail residents of minority status within a facility were less likely to be vaccinated than either healthier minority status residents or majority status residents, frail or healthy. Science and Education Publishing 2013-03-15 http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajphr/1/2/1 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:169 2013-04-08
Dengue Knowledge and Preventive Practices among Rural Residents in Samar Province, Philippines dengue fever, dengue preventive practices, dengue knowledge, Samar Province The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies dengue as a disease important in public health. The epidemiology and ecology of dengue infections are strongly associated with human habits and activities. The present study aimed to evaluate the knowledge and practices regarding dengue infections among rural residents in Samar Province, Philippines. A cross sectional design was adopted for this investigation. Convenience samples of six hundred forty six (646) residents who were visiting the rural health units in different municipalities of Samar, Philippines were taken as participants in study. More than half of the respondents had good knowledge (61.45%) on causes, signs and symptoms, mode of transmission, and preventive measures about dengue. More than half of the respondents used dengue preventive measures such as fans (n = 340, 52.63%), mosquito coil (n = 458, 70.90%), and bed nets (n = 387, 59.91%) to reduce mosquitoes while only about one third utilized insecticides sprays (n = 204, 31.58%) and screen windows (n = 233, 36.07%) and a little portion used professional pest control (n = 146, 22.60%). There was no correlation between knowledge about dengue and preventive practices (p=0.75). Television/Radio was cited as the main source of information on dengue infections. Findings suggest that better knowledge does not necessarily lead to better practice of dengue measures. Educational campaigns should give more emphasis dengue transmissions and on cost effective ways of reducing mosquito and preventing dengue such as environmental measures and control. Furthermore, wide range of information, skills and support must be provided by the government to increase dengue awareness among residents. Science and Education Publishing 2013-04-08 http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajphr/1/2/2 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:17 2013-02-15
HLA-B27 Subtypes Distribution among Moroccan Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis Ankylosing spondylitis, PCR-SSP, HLA-B27 subtypes, Moroccan population The association of HLA-B27 with ankylosing spondylitis accounts for 20 to 50% of the total disease risk. It varies markedly among racial and ethnic populations. The main purpose of the present study is to perform an investigation regarding the distribution of the human leukocyte antigen HLA-B27 and its subtypes in Moroccan healthy controls and in patients with AS and to compare this with other reports from other populations. One hundred twenty-five controls and 116 patients with AS were evaluated in this study. Among patients, three cases were associated to acute anterior uveitis. Typing of the HLA-B27 alleles was performed by microlymphocytotoxicity and polymerase chain reaction amplification with sequence-specific primers. A significant association between ankylosing spondylitis and B27 was identified; HLA-B*27 allele was carried by 46.5% of patients and only one subject from healthy controls was found to be positive (p<0.001, RR= 2.95). Among all positive patients, 64.8% were males and 53.7% belonged to 20-29 and 30–39 age groups. Being male aged 30–39 was significantly associated with B27 positivity. Four HLA- B*27 alleles were observed in this study: B*2705 (44.4%), B*2702 (29.6%), B*2703 (9.2%) and B*2708 (16.7%). The only positive subject from healthy controls carried B*2705 allele. B*2708 subtype was identified in all cases with uveitis. This allele showed a significant association with patients being female. Concluding, HLA-B27 is strongly associated with ankylosing spondylitis in Moroccan population. Our results showed a restricted number of HLA-B27 subtypes with predominance of HLA-B*2705, 02 alleles. The B*2708 allele detected for the first time in North Africa, seems to be associated with ankylosing spondylitis in the studied population. Science and Education Publishing 2013-02-15 http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajmbr/1/1/5 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:170 2013-04-11
Comparing the Efficacy of Oral Sucrose and Acetaminophen in Pain Relief for Ophthalmologic Screening of Retinopathy of Prematurity retinopathy of prematurity, pain, preterm neonates, PIPP Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a potential cause for visual impairment in preterm newborn infants with gestation age 32 weeks or less and birth weight less than1500 gram. There are several studies that reported physiologic and behavioral responses to painful and stressing screening examination. This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of sucrose and acetaminophen in pain control during eye examination in premature infants. A prospective randomized clinical trial was carried out in a tertiary level NICU. One hundred twenty preterm infants were randomly allocated in to 3 groups. Group A received oral acetaminophen 15mg/kg 30 minutes before eye examination and 0.2ml sterile water, given by mouth using a syringe, during examination; group B 0.2ml sucrose 25% and group C 0.2ml sterile water given by mouth using a syringe during examination. Ophthalmologic examinations were recorded by videotape. Pain score was determined by using PIPP during first 45 seconds and at last 45 seconds of eye examination. There was no significant difference between groups regarding gestation age, birth weight and age at examination. The mean PIPP score at first 45 sec were 12.9±2.4, 9±2.1 and 13.7±1.6 for groups A, B, and C respectively (p<0.001). It was 12.3±2.4, 11.2±3 and 12.1±2.6 at last 45 sec of examination in groups A, B, and C respectively P=0.12.Two patients had apnea during first 12 hours after examination and both of them were in group C. In our study, using sucrose was associated with reduced pain score in neonates undergoing screening for ROP at beginning of eye examination but not at the last seconds of examination. Science and Education Publishing 2013-04-11 http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajmsm/1/2/2 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:171 2013-04-06
An Immunohistochemical Study of N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptors in Human Cerebellum and Hippocampus human hippocampus, human cerebellum, immunohistochemical study, glutamate receptors, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors The aim of our investigation was to demonstrate the wide distribution of glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDA R), particularly the not-widely investigated 2A and 2B subunits, in the human adult cerebellum and hippocampus. Specimens of human hippocampus and cerebellum were obtained at the time of autopsy from two male individuals, aged 24 and 48 years, with no obvious brain injury. The brains were immunostained using anti-human rabbit polyclonal NR antibodies (NMDA R 2A&B, ΑΒ1548 (Chemicon), NMDA receptors anti- human Poly HRP IHC (Detection kit) and counterstained with Mayer’s hematoxylin. The present immunohistochemical research of human adult cerebellum and hippocampus demonstrates that the majority of neurons in the dentate gyrus, the large pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus, the granular cells of the cerebellum as well as the main cerebellar neuron, namely Purkinje cell, stained deeply by the monoclonal antibody, suggesting that the majority of the neuronal network in cerebellum and hippocampus uses as neurotransmitter the excitatory aminoacids on the system of NMDA receptors. Our findings, demonstrating that the majority of cells were stained by the monoclonal antibody, emphasize the importance of the excitatory system of the glutamate and the examined receptors 2A & B, in the human cerebellum and hippocampus in adults, underlying the important role that this system may play in memory function and cognition, and at the same time the crucial role of the cerebellum in higher cognitive functions, in part due to the wide distribution of NMDA R. Science and Education Publishing 2013-04-06 http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajmsm/1/2/3 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:172 2013-04-07
Unique Hennebique Bridges in Lublin, Poland historic bridges, Hennebique, restoration, RC Seeking the origins of the reinforced concrete (RC) technology, one certainly meets the name of François Hennebique. His genius and powerful organisation, known as Le Béton Armé Systéme Hennebique, were crusial for developing RC in theory and practice. And it is bridges that played a significant role in his activity. Nowadays, the city of Lublin, Poland, may pride itself on two bridges in Hennebique technology, the heritage of those great days. The following is a concise account of the successful restoration of one of the two bridges but also a presentation of the other one being in great need of renovation. The bridges mentioned above were constructed by the Polish engineer Marian Lutosławski, who highly deserves being treated as a RC pioneer. The structure of Lublin’s bridges was thoroughly examined in many aspects, especially by applying a FEM analysis, non-destructive methods and a testing compressive strength on the cores taken. The carrying load capacity was estimated in accordance with the Polish standards and Eurocodes. As a result of the restoration there appeared a possibility of formulating a thesis on the concept of the RC beam Hennebique bridges as a modified form of beam wooden ones. The arguments which definitely prove the thesis have been formulated. Both of the bridges mentioned above constitute a significant contribution to the world's RC technical heritage. Science and Education Publishing 2013-04-07 http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajcea/1/2/5 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:173 2013-04-09
Thermal Solar Desalination Technologies for Small-Scale Irrigation arid areas, desalination, agriculture, irrigation, solar energy Water challenge in arid countries is considered one of most critical challenges facing agriculture and food systems, and is expected to grow with time. This is due mainly to the scarcity and rapid depletion of freshwater resources, and the increasing groundwater salinity. Nevertheless, these countries have generally a great solar energy potential. This potential can be best developed by solar desalination concepts and methods specifically suited for rural water supply, including small-scale irrigation, and also the protection of available water resources against overuse and pollution. The present study is concerned with the performance review of solar desalination systems that could be applied for agriculture applications in rural arid areas. Direct and indirect solar desalination technologies of solar energy based system concepts for irrigation water desalination are described and analyzed. Attempts are reported to propose precepts upon which a strategy can be formulated for introducing desalination technology for irrigation. Science and Education Publishing 2013-04-09 http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajer/1/2/1 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:174 2013-04-15
Effect of Die Design Parameters on Thinning of Sheet Metal in the Deep Drawing Process finite element, parametric analysis, geometrical parameters, thickness distribution, thinning Prediction of the forming results, determination of the thickness distribution and the thinning of the sheet metal blank will decrease the production cost through saving material and production time. In this paper, A Finite Element (FE) model is developed for the 3-D numerical simulation of deep drawing process (Parametric Analysis) by using ABAQUS/EXPLICIT FEA program with the proper material properties (anisotropic material) and simplified boundary conditions. The FE results are compared with experimental results for validation. The developed model can predict the thickness distribution and thinning of the blank with the die design parameters (geometrical and physical parameters). Furthermore, with numerical simulation, working parameters can be optimized without expensive shop trials. Science and Education Publishing 2013-04-15 http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajme/1/2/1 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:175 2013-04-09
Dilution Effect on the Extinction of Impinging Diffusion Flame with a Lateral Wall flame, dilution, impinging, infrared thermography, methane The dynamic process of the interaction between a turbulent jet methane diffusion flame and a lateral wall was experimentally studied. The evolution of the flame temperature field with the Nitrogen dilution of the methane jet flame was studied for 0.2N2, 0.4N2, 0.6N2, 0.8N2, the interaction between the diffusion flame and the lateral wall is characterized for different distance between the wall and the central axis of the jet flame, the dilution is found to play the central role in the flame extinction process. The flame response as the lateral wall approaches from infinity and the increasing of the dilution rate make the flame extinction more rapidly than the flame without dilution, when the nitrogen dilution rate increase the flame temperature decrease. Science and Education Publishing 2013-04-09 http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajme/1/2/2 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:176 2013-04-11
Investigation of Different Methods of Noise Reduction for Submerged Marine Propellers and Their Classification submerged marine propeller, sound propagation, methods of noise reduction, cavitation noise In this paper, the most prevalent methods of reducing noise from the marine propellers are surveyed and introduced. Subsequently, these methods are analyzed and classified as five different categories. This categorization is conducted from the stand points of technology and cost, the type of noise (cavitation, non-cavitation noise), the method of noise reduction (change in propeller geometry, modification of inlet flow, and confinement of the propeller), frequency of the targeted noise, and simplicity of implementation of the method of noise reduction in the existing vessels. The scientific classification performed in this article would bring about better recognition of and acquaintance with each of the mentioned methods of noise reduction, its limitations in cost and applications, which would in turn help the designers and the decision makers make the right decision under different operational circumstances. Science and Education Publishing 2013-04-11 http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajme/1/2/3 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:177 2013-03-23
Analysis of Wrist Extension Using 3D Digital Image Correlation digital image correlation, wrist extension, flexor pollicis longus muscle Wrist is an extremely significant and important part of our body. It is the performance index of our work. Previous research has shown that wrist flexion can lead to compression of the median nerve in the carpal tunnel, resulting in numbness, parenthesis and muscle weakness in hand. We present an effective optical approach for the measurement of strain on superficial muscles and tendons due to wrist extension, a remedy for carpal tunnel syndrome. The 3D correlation software computes the in-plane and out of plane strain using pictures taken, using 2 charge coupled device cameras, before and after extension. Strain plots obtained after comparison indicates the strain distribution in anterior compartment of the forearm muscle. The experiment is then repeated for four other participants and the trends are observed. The effect of stretching on the two important anterior components of the forearm muscles, namely the flexor pollicis longus muscle, flexor carpi ulnaris muscle is studied. This study can assist practitioners working in the field of applied anthropology to develop advanced diagnosis methodologies. Science and Education Publishing 2013-03-23 http://pubs.sciepub.com/bb/1/1/1 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:178 2013-04-01
Dissipation and Residues of Lufenuron in Grape Fruits Lufenuron, Residues, Dissipation, Grape The main objective of this study was to understand the residue and persistence behavior of lufenuron insecticide in grape fruit samples. The residues were analyzed by HPLC and it dissipated in grape fruit following first order kinetics. The average initial deposit of in grape fruit was observed to be 1.85mg kg-1 at single application rate. The recoveries of lufenuron on grape fruit were observed from 91.97% to 95.25% at fortification levels of 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0mg kg-1. The reported limit of quantification (LOQ) was found to be 0.01mg kg-1. The dissipation experiments showed the half-lives (T1/2) of lufenuron were around 2.79 days. According to the maximum residue limit (MRL) the pre-harvest interval (PHI) of lufenuron on grape was 3 days after the treatment. Science and Education Publishing 2013-04-01 http://pubs.sciepub.com/env/1/2/1 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:179 2013-04-02
Harvesting and Supply Chain Analysis of Ethnobotanical Species in the Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve of India ethnobotanical species, collection, marketing, supply chain; conservation, Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve Realizing the historical importance of central Indian forests in terms of ecological, social and economical perspectives and the present socio-economic changes in the community due to several reasons, the present study was conducted. It aimed at addressing the status of harvesting pattern and supply chain structure of various ethno-botanical species by the tribal communities in the Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve of India. The questionnaire surveys were conducted in the villages of buffer zone areas of the Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve and market places for studying the trends and status of collection, seasons of collection, prices, and supply chain of ethnobotanicals. A total 14 ethno-botanical species were found in active trade, and in majority of cases their gum, fruit and seed were collected. The gum yielding species such as Acacia nilotica, Anogeissus latifolia, Sterculia urens, Terminalia tomentosa and Terminalia arjuna were found to be highly paid species among all traded ethno-botanical species. The trade in ethnobotanicals and market trends seemed quite lucrative to the tribal communities and hence they have started unsustainable harvesting of tradable forest resources to get maximum returns unlike their ancestors. Of the total tradable ethnobotanical species 8 species have qualified to various threat categories of IUCN Red List. The results of this study are further discussed in view of the conservation and management of ethnobotanical species. Science and Education Publishing 2013-04-02 http://pubs.sciepub.com/env/1/2/2 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:18 2013-02-16
Prenatal Diagnosis of Osteopathia Striata with Cranial Sclerosis in a Male Fetus with a ~330kb Deletion of Xq11.1 Involving the WTX Gene Osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis (OSCS), Wilms tumor on the X-chromosome (WTX) gene, Microarray, Mosaic, Osteopetrosis, Germline mosaicism Osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis (OSCS) is a rare X-linked dominant genetic disorder resulting mutation in the WTX gene. Clinically, OSCS presents with linear striations in the metaphyseal region of the long bones and pelvis in combination with sclerosis of the cranium and face. A twenty-seven year old G5T1P3A0L2 woman with a history of peri- and neonatal infant male deaths was referred to us at 22 weeks, 6 days into her recent pregnancy. Ultrasound evaluation identified a male fetus, bilaterally enlarged lateral ventricles, a cloverleaf skull, suspected bilateral cleft lip, nuchal thickening, bilateral bowed radii and ulnae, gastroschisis with herniated viscera, bilateral absent fibula and clubfeet. The results of prenatal testing identified a male fetus with a 330kb Xq11.1 deletion involving the entire WTX gene. Initial microarray analysis of maternal blood identified a normal female karyotype, 46,XX. FISH analysis with a BAC clone mapped to the WTX gene identified low-level mosaicism in blood and buccal samples, 17% and 15%, respectively, which explained the negative maternal microarray result. Science and Education Publishing 2013-02-16 http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajmbr/1/1/6 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:180 2013-04-05
Technical Report on Reclamation of Small Scale Surface Mined Lands in Ghana: A Landscape Perspective galamsey, ground cover, organic manure, reclamation, small scale mining, topsoil Small scale mining activities which involve surface mining is an acceptable means of mineral exploitation in Ghana but has serious environmental consequences. Although a number of laws and research papers have been written on restoration after a piece of land has been mined, not much detail is provided on the actual processes involved. This review paper attempts a look at the process of restoration with projections on cost of restoration. Although it is based on activities at a predominantly farming community like Akyem Hemang in the Fanteakwa district of the Eastern region of Ghana, the principles involved will be applicable to other mining communities in the tropics. The paper looks at aspects of surface mining popular in rural areas of Ghana and attempt to explain the process of restoration with suggestions on how to measure success and how to involve affected communities to safe guard and ensure the success of the programme. A licensed concession can be as small as 3acres or as large as 25acres and can be mined for 3-5 years after which the land should be reclaimed to a productive state. The reclamation process, after field establishment should last for at least 5years to determine success. Small scale mining is defined as the use of rudimentary implements as well as the more sophisticated mining operating at a relatively low level of production with limited capital investment. It is carried out in rural farming communities and is popular with itinerant poorly educated people and usually results in severe deterioration to the environment, especially, crop land; posing serious health risks to communities in which it is carried out. The deterioration results from the destruction of vegetal cover and excavation of the overburden to assess the mineral bearing soil. Where farm lands or forested lands have been affected, a combination of natural and artificial reclamation is recommended. The process of reclamation should be planned and begins when topsoil at the mined site is removed to store separately from the subsoil and over-burden at the pre-mining stage. Topsoil however cannot be stored for too long as the quality deteriorates with time. Depending on the depth of excavation, restoration should involve importation and replacement of subsoil to a depth of 600mm - 900mm spread in 150mm layers, and left to settle naturally for a period of 3 -6months. When the land is sufficiently settled, topsoil mixed with manure should be laid over the subsoil to a depth of 150mm minimum after settling. This is followed by sowing of nitrogen fixing leguminous green manure by broadcasting to provide the first blanket of vegetative cover to protect the soil from the direct effect of the elements. Although Crotalaria juncea (Sunnhemp) is highly recommended nitrogen fixing leguminous annual with high biomass production for highly degraded land, other area-specific nitrogen fixing plants can be recommended by the area agricultural extension officer. About 60days after sowing of the green manure cover crop, when it is in bloom, it is smothered and worked into the soil. Seedlings of both local and exotic tree plants can then be established on the land after pegging and holing to 563seedlings per acre. The reclaimed land should be maintained and managed by maintaining a balance between introduced exotic tree seedlings and native sprouted tree seedlings by weeding, staking, and occasional pruning for at least 5years before any assessment for the success of the reclamation can be done. The estimated cost for reclamation of 1acre of mined land excavated to a depth of 900mm is about US$ 52,419.33 (Gh¢101,000), inclusive of 2-3% for maintenance. Science and Education Publishing 2013-04-05 http://pubs.sciepub.com/env/1/2/3 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:181 2013-02-28
Electron-phonon Pairing Mechanism for Superconductivity in K fullerenes, intermolecular phonons, intramolecular phonons, transition temperature, carbon isotope effect, energy gap ratio The electron pairing mechanism leading to superconducting state in K3C60 fullerenes is explored within the framework of strong coupling theory. The intercage interactions between C60 cages and expansion of lattice due to the intercalation of K atoms are investigated using the nearest neighbor interactions. The renormalized Coulomb repulsive parameter * and the electron phonon coupling strength are obtained for the intermolecular phonon frequency er, keeping in mind that the free electrons in lowest molecular orbital are coupled with intermolecular phonons. Tc is then estimated as 5 K, which is much lower as compared with the reported value. The electrons also couple with the intramolecular phonons then Tc enhances to 22 K. In this approach the carbon isotope effect exponent, the energy gap ratio, effect of pressure and volume on Tc is calculated which support the superconducting state. Science and Education Publishing 2013-02-28 http://pubs.sciepub.com/jmpc/1/2/1 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:182 2013-04-15
Using Geographic Information System and Analytical Hierarchy Process in Landslide Hazard Zonation landslide, hazard, AHP, GIS Nepal frequently suffers from various types of water induced disasters like soil erosion, landslide, debris flow, flood etc. To mitigate the problem related to Landslides & Debris flow, Landslide Hazard zonation is important to quick and safe mitigation measures and make strategic planning for the future by identifying the most vulnerable areas and channelizing most of the protective measures and techniques to a more focused area. This study was carried out in Rupa watershed area of kaski district with the main objective of identifying the landslide triggering factors and making the landslide hazard zonation map of the study area. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Geographic Information System (GIS) were entirely employed for the preparation of Landslide Hazard Zonation mapping. The main factors responsible for the occurrence of landslide was found to be slope, aspect, landcover, presence of roads and presence of river and streams. Among these factors, the presence of road factors had the prominent effect on landslide occurrence. Altogether 13 landslide events were recorded in the study area and among them most of the landslide events were seen in Rupakot Village Development Committee (VDC). The final landslide susceptibility map of the study area can help the development planners to know more about the area and disseminate their development project in accordance with the need base approach. Proper development plan, proper system of keeping the records of landslide events, broadcasting high susceptible zones for landslides, implementing appropriate conservation technology, giving instructions to the locals can help to minimize these kind of natural disasters. Science and Education Publishing 2013-04-15 http://pubs.sciepub.com/aees/1/2/1 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:183 2013-04-23
Mothers Management of Malaria Fever among Under-Five Nomadic Fulani Children of Northeastern Nigeria management, fever, under-five, nomadic Fulanis Malaria is a deadly disease which is spread widely in the tropical regions of the world with holoendemicity in SubSaharan Africa. An investigation of fever management among mothers of under-five children was carried out in nomadic Fulani settlements of Adamawa State Nigeria. Management of fever was assessed through interviews and questionnaires. Nearly half of the nomadic Fulani mothers (49.47%) did not take any action within 24 hours when their children had fever. This was not significantly different (p < 0.05) with regard to age, clan and parity of the mothers. The duration between mother’s recognition and management of fever showed that almost half (49.6%) of the mothers did not take time into consideration during intervention of fever. Mothers of under-five who acted within 24 hours of noticing of fever in their children were 30.6%, while those who acted after 24 hours were 12.0%. There was no significant difference (p < 0.05) between mothers recognition of fever and management based on age, clan and parity. Home management of fever by most nomadic Fulani mothers was not satisfactory. Similarly, timely intervention of fever was not considered by most nomadic Fulani mothers. There is the need for appropriate education and adoption of new strategies for timely intervention of disease causing fever among the nomadic Fulani population. Science and Education Publishing 2013-04-23 http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajidm/1/2/1 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:184 2013-03-10
Crystal-Morphological Identification of Varicose Disease Stages of Lower Limbs crystal-morphological method, varicose veins, crystallized areas of vein In work method for differentiation of varicose veins of lower extremities stages was used. This method is founded on comparative analysis of traditional histological and crystal-morphological methods. Dependency crystal-morphological drawing of the textures veins of lower extremities from stage varicose disease is observed. Science and Education Publishing 2013-03-10 http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajmbr/1/2/1 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:185 2013-04-15
Some Aspects of Medical Education in Russia medical education, postgraduate training, medical literature, Russia Some aspects of medical education in Russia are discussed in this report. After the 6-year undergraduate education, a 2-year postgraduate program without a preceding internship is the usual way to become a medical specialist. Besides, the specialist certificates can be obtained after a 1-year internship. Shortages of education, limited availability of foreign professional literature and partial isolation of Russian medicine from the rest of the world contributed to persistence of outdated methods. At the same time, limited access to the international literature has been compensated by domestic editions, which often are scarcely illustrated, contain outdated information, while borrowings from foreign sources sometimes harbor mistranslations leading to a loss or distortion of the original meaning. For elimination of the shortages, more international cooperation is needed, which necessitates more mutual trust. Without profound restructuring, the current system of postgraduate training in Russia can be adapted to the international standards if its components (internship, 2-and 3-year postgraduate programs), would be transformed into consecutive steps. Curricula should be modernized and include more rotation. With time, the above-named components of the postgraduate training can be amalgamated in a unified system. Science and Education Publishing 2013-04-15 http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajms/1/2/1 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:186 2013-04-14
Long-Term Electrolyte Effects during Initiation of Antihypertensive Therapy with Amlodipine or Hydrochlorothiazide in Diabetic Nigerians Amlodipine, hydrochlorothiazide, electrolyte effects, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, Nigerians Information is scarce regarding the effects of amlodipine or hydrochlorothiazide therapy on serum and urine electrolyte profiles in hypertensive Nigerians with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Therefore, to evaluate whether amlodipine or hydrochlorothiazide would be preferable to initiate treatment, we randomized 40 newly diagnosed hypertensive subjects with controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus aged 43-68years to amlodipine and hydrochlorothiazide treatment groups of 20 patients each (10 males, 10 females), and they were treated respectively, with amlodipine 10mg and hydrochlorothiazide 25mg, both drugs being given once daily for 48 weeks. Body mass index, blood pressure, 24h urine volume, serum and urine electrolytes were assessed at baseline and at the end of weeks 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48. The two drugs significantly reduced blood pressure, though the effect of amlodipine was significantly greater compared with that of hydrochlorothiazide (P < 0.01). Diuresis was significant in hydrochlorothiazide group (P < 0.01). Observed male/female serum Na+ loss was 9.18±2.32/10.90±2.50 and 13.30±1.34/15.10±1.77mmol/L for amlodipine and hydrochlorothiazide subgroups, respectively. There was a parallel significant (P < 0.05) natriuresis. Significant (P < 0.05) hypokalemia occurred in hydrochlorothiazide subgroups and overall male/female serum K+ loss was 0.10/0.08 and 0.16/0.24mmol/L for amlodipine and hydrochlorothiazide, respectively. However, there was no significant parallel kaliuresis. Significant (P < 0.05) disproportionate hypochloremia occurred in all subgroups, so also was the parallel chloriuria. By providing effective blood pressure control and beneficial biochemical effects, amlodipine therapy appears suitable for treatment of hypertension in these diabetic patients. Similarly, low dose hydrochlorothiazide therapy, which seems to have more marked effects in females, appears to have moderate biochemical complications in these patients and is, therefore, a logical alternative to substitute for or add to amlodipine therapy. Science and Education Publishing 2013-04-14 http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajmsm/1/3/1 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:187 2013-04-16
Evaluation of Power Distance and Its Consequences on Hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences power distance, managers, employees, hospital, organizational variables Many organizations have realized the importance of human resources for their competitive advantage. Empowering employees is therefore a principle necessity for organizational effectiveness. This study aimed to investigate hospital employees' attitude toward existing power distance in their organization and examine its effects. This was a cross sectional study with a descriptive-analytical research design conducted in Tehran University of Medical Sciences hospitals, Tehran, Iran. A sample of 306 managers and employees has been participated in the study according to the sample size. Separate questionnaires which were developed by Francesco and Chen (2000) were used to collect data from each group of them. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16 software. In confidence interval of 95%, there was a statistically significant relationship between employees' attitude towards power distance and their job satisfaction, organizational commitment, perception of discriminatory in organization, and readiness to accept working responsibilities (p < 0.05). Also, there was a statistically significant relationship between managers’ attitude toward power distance and the way of dealing with their employees, considering employees’ competency and qualification, giving them work independence also providing them with necessary supports. Disseminating the culture of low power distance in the organization makes employees perceive justice and equality in their organization and consequently be engaged more effectively in the work responsibilities in line with organizational goals. Science and Education Publishing 2013-04-16 http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajphr/1/3/1 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:188 2013-03-13
Aerodynamic and Acoustical Analysis of Flow around a Circular Cylinder in a Channel and Parametric Study on the Effects of a Splitter Plate on the Generated Vibration and Noise cylinder, noise, splitter, lift Generated noise of moving objects in different fluids is one the most important subjects among scientists and researchers. Accordingly, in the present work, effects of splitters with different length and location on sound pressure level of circular cylinder are investigated by COMOSL software. Aerodynamic and aero-acoustic analyses are done in an air channel with Reynolds number 200. The analyses include 7 different cases of splitters. The obtained results indicate that splitters do not influence the frequency of lift force oscillation, but vibration force is reduced by about 99.6%. In the meantime, the SPL is increased 15.4 percent, when double splitters are located at the upper half of the cylinder. The best case scenario occurs when one splitter with a length equal to the diameter of cylinder is located at this position. In this situation, SPL is reduced by about 6.4 percent and lift force oscillation is increased by about 90.5 percent. Science and Education Publishing 2013-03-13 http://pubs.sciepub.com/amp/1/1/1 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing
oai:sciepub.com:189 2013-04-22
RANS Simulation of Dynamic Trim and Sinkage of a Planing Hull RANS, planing hull, sinkage, trim, calm water In this article, a RANS solver is implemented to model a planing hull motion in calm water. K-E turbulent model is also utilized to capture details around the planing hull and, correspondingly, force acting on the hull. Furthermore, an individual mesh is adopted by combination of structured and unstructured mesh. To verify capability of the considered mesh, steady state solution of a planing hull is investigated and it is observed that numerical settings are adequate for determining planing motion. Finally, a hard chine planing hull is considered and dynamic sinkage and trim are computed. Comparisons of the obtained results with experimental data show a relatively good agreement and it can be concluded that the presented method can be used for practical studies in initial design. Science and Education Publishing 2013-04-22 http://pubs.sciepub.com/amp/1/1/2 text en Copyright 2013 Science and Education Publishing